Association of Endogenous Testosterone with Lipid and Blood Glucose Profiles in Elderly Men with Angiographically Proven Cardiovascular Disease of Nadia and Murshidabad District, West Bengal
- 31 Downloads
Testosterone is commonly known for its role in the regulation of reproductive physiology in men. Epidemiologic studies suggest that endogenous testosterone levels may be implicated in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum total testosterone (TT) levels and lipid profile as well as fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in male patients ranging from 40 to 70 years old with angiographically proven CVDs from Nadia and Murshidabad district of West Bengal, India. These data were compared with the normal men with no CVD history. We observed a significantly low serum TT levels in CVD patient group compared to the normal group. Among CVD patients, a significant (p < 0.05) negative association was found between serum TT and total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein, whereas a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) was found between serum TT and high density lipoprotein. We also observed a highly significant negative correlation between TT and FBG levels in CVD patient group. Thus, in these two densely populated district of West Bengal with poor socio-economic condition, low levels of serum TT in elderly men is associated with CVD that appear together with an atherogenic lipid milieu that may be involved in the pathogenesis of CVD. Results further indicate that low serum TT might have a role in the development of hyperglycemia as evidenced from high FBG level in elderly men.
KeywordsTestosterone Cardiovascular disease (CVD) Lipids Glucose Elderly men
The authors are thankful to Dr. Gordon Niswender, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA for his generous gift of T antibody.
This work is supported in part by Personal Research Grant and DST-PURSE grant of Kalyani University to Prof. Dilip Mukherjee.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declared that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of the research reported.
- Bae, Y.S., J.H. Lee, S.H. Choi, et al. 2009. Macrophages generate reactive oxygen species in response to minimally oxidized low-densityy lipoprotein: Toll-like receptor 4- and spleen tyrosine kinase-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase. Circulation Research 104: 210–218.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fernandez-Balsells, M.M., M.H. Murad, M. Lane, J.F. Lampropulos, F. Albuquerque, R.J. Mullan, N. Agarwal, M.B. Elamin, J.F. Gallegos-Orozco, and A.T. Wang. 2010. Clinical review 1: Adverse effects of testosterone therapy in adult men: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 95: 2560–2575.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Haring, R., S.E. Baumeister, H. Volzke, M. Dorr, S.B. Felix, H.K. Kroemer, M. Nauck, and H. Wallaschofski. 2011. Prospective association of low total testosterone concentrations with an adverse lipid profile and increased incident dyslipidemia. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 18: 86–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mattack, N., R. Devi, T. Kutum, and D. Patgiri. 2015. The evaluation of serum levels of testosterone in type 2 diabetic men and its relation with lipid profile. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 9(1): 4–7.Google Scholar
- Nettleship, J.E., T.H. Jones, K.S. Channer, and R.D. Jones. 2007. Physiological testosterone replacement therapyattenuates fatty streak formation and improves high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the Tfm mouse: An effect that is independent of the classic androgen receptor. Circulation 116: 2427–2434.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Paul, S., K. Pramanick, S. Kundu, D. Kumar, and D. Mukherjee. 2010. Regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis in vitro by IGF-I and insulin in common carp, Cyprinus crarpio: Stimulation of aromatase activity and P450 arom gene expression. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 315: 95–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Roy Chowdhury, S.K., C.P. Hu, G.V. Sangle, X. Xie, G.L. Stelmack, A.J. Halayko, and G.X. Shen. 2010. Effects of extensively oxidized low-density lipoprotein on mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species in porcine aortic endothelial cells. American Journal of Physiogy and Endocrinology Metabolism 298: E89–E98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sen, U., D. Mukherjee, S.P. Bhattacharya, and D. Mukherjee. 2002. Seasonal changes in plasma steroid levels in Indian major carp Labeo rohita: Influence of homologus pituitary extract on steroid production and development of oocyte maturational competence. General and Comparative Endocrinology 128: 123–134.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Simon, D., M.A. Charles, K. Nahoul, G. Orssaud, J. Kremski, V. Hully, E. Joubert, L. Papoz, and E. Eschwge. 1997. Association between plasma total testosterone and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adult men: The Telecom study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 82: 682–685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tang, J.J., R.A. Srivastava, E.S. Krul, D. Basumann, B.A. Pfleger, R.T. Kitchens, and G. Schonfeld. 1991. In vivo regulation if apolipoprotein A-I gene expression by estradiol and testosterone occurs by different mechanisms in inbred strains of mice. Journal of Lipid Research 32: 1571–1585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Trinder, P. 1969. Determination of blood glucose using an oxidase-peroxidase system with a non-carcinogenic chromogen. Journal of Clinical Pathology 22: 151–161.Google Scholar
- Xia, C.J., M.S. Liu, M.S. Wang, and G.B. Xu. 2012. Trueness assessment for serum glucose measurement using commercial systems through the preparetiom of commutable reference materials. Clinical Chemistry 32: 243–249.Google Scholar
- Zar, J. H. 1999. Biostatistical analysis, 4th edition, 377–410. Pearson Education Inc., Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
- Zhang, N., H. Zhang, X. Zhang, B. Zhang, F. Zhang, J. Jhao, M. Zhao, L. Gao, C. Yu, F. Wang, C. Wang, and Q. Guan. 2014. The relationship between endogenous testosterone and lipid profile in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. European Journal of Endocrinology 170: 487–494.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zmuda, J.M., J.A. Cauley, A. Kriska, N.W. Glynn, J.P. Gutai, and L.H. Kuller. 1997. Longitudinal relation between endogenous testosterone and cardiovascular disease risk factors in middle-aged men a 13-year follow-up of former multiple risk factor intervention trial participants. American Journal of Epidemiology 146: 609–617.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar