The Eocene coal deposits of west Daranggiri coalfield of Meghalaya is hosted in the Tura Formation. The coals are perhydrous in composition, rich in organic matters and poor in mineral content. The organic matters are dominantly represented by Type III kerogens contributed by terrestrial plants. Petrographic analysis confirms dominance of vitrinite with subordinate amounts of liptinite and inertinite. Maturity parameters like vitrinite reflectance, Rock-Eval Tmax, volatile matter content etc. indicate low thermal maturity of the coal within lignite to subbituminous rank. The coals are immature to act as petroleum source rock despite having high-quality organic matters. However, perhydrous nature of the organic matters and significant amount of liptinite macerals suggest that despite low thermal maturity, the coals might have some capacity to generate liquid hydrocarbon. High liptinite and perhydrous vitrinite contents of the coal may result in suppression of vitrinite reflectance, thus, underestimation of maturity. Presence of exsudatinite in the coal also points to generation of some liquid hydrocarbon. The coal deposits possess excellent potential for hydrogenation industry. The coals are characterized by very high rate of conversion from coal to oil and high oil yield. Indices of facies critical maceral association indicate the origin of the coal in wet swamps under mildly oxic to the anoxic environment with moist hydrodynamic condition. The high sulphur content of the coal, association of marine palynological assemblage and presence of limestone beds at the top of the Tura Formation point to nearshore environment of deposition.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Bordenave, M.L., Espitalié, L., Leplat, P., Oudin, J.L. and Vandenbroucke, M. (1993) Screening techniques for source rock evaluation. In: Bordenave, M.L. (Ed.), Applied Petroleum Geochemistry. Editions Technip, Paris, pp.217–278.
Bustin, M. and Lowe L.E. (1987) Sulphur, low temperature ash and minor elements in humid-temperate peat of the Fraser River Delta, British Columbia. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, v.144, pp.435–450.
Carr, A.D. (2000) Suppression and retardation of vitrinite reflectance, Part 1. Formation and significance for hydrocarbon generation. Jour. Petrol. Geol., v. 23(3), pp.313–343.
Cohen, A. D. and Spackman, W. (1972) Methods in peat petrology and their application in reconstruction of paleoenvironments. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., v.83, pp.129–142.
Cudmore, J.F. (1977) Evolutions of coals for conversion to liquid hydrocarbons. Proceeding of Symposium on Coal Borehole Evaluation, Brisbane, Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, pp.146-48.
Cudmore, J.F (1983) Coal Utilization. In: Ward, C. R. (Ed) Coal geology and coal technology. 1st ed, Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp.114-150.
Davis, A., Spackman, W. and Given P. H. (1976) The influence of the properties of coals on their conversion to clean Fuel. Energy Sources, v.3, pp.55–81.
Deng, X. L., and Sun Y.Z. (2011) Coal petrological characteristics and coal facies of No. 11 seam from the Antaibao mine, Ningwu coalfield, China. Energy Exploration and Exploitation, v.29(2), pp.313–324.
Deshpande, S. V., Bhandari, A, Deshpande, J., Rana, K. S., Girdhar, M., Kale, AS., Goel, S.M., Baruah, R.M., Kumar, A, Chitrao, A.M., Chaudhuri, D. and Phor, L. (1993) Assam Arakan Basin. KDMIPE, ONGC, Dehradun.
Diesel, C.F.K. (1986) On the correlation between coal facies and depositional environments. Proc. 20th Symposium of Department of Geology, University of New Castle, New South Wales, pp.19–22.
Duan, D.J., Zhao, C.L., Qin, S.J., Kalkreuth W. and Lin M.Y. (2011) Coal petrological and coal facies characteristics of the No. 2 seam from Huangling mine, Shanxi Province, China, Energy Exploration & Exploitation, v.29(5), pp.647–666.
Durand, B. and Paratte, M. (1983) Oil Potential of Coals: A Geochemical Approach. Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ., v.12, pp.255–265.
Geological Survey of India (2016) Coalfields of North Eastern India. Bulletin Series A. no.45.
Guyot, R.E. (1978) Influence of Coal Characteristics on the Yields and Properties of Hydrogenation Products. ACIRL-PR-8, North Ryde, NSW, Australia, Australian Coal Industry Research Laboratories.
Hazarika, S. and Phukan, S. (2015) Organic geochemical appraisal of hydrocarbon potential and thermal maturity of Lower Paleogene coal deposits of Meghalaya, India. Jour. Appld. Geochem., v.17(2), pp.128–119.
Hunt, J.M. (1979) Petroleum Geochemistry and Geology. Freeman, San Francisco.
Hunt, J.M. (1991) Generation of gas and oil from coal and other terrestrial organic matter, Organic Geochemistry, v.179(6), pp.673–680.
ICCP (2001) The new inertinite classification (ICCP System 1994), Fuel, v.80, pp. 459–471.
ICCP, (1998) The new vitrinite classification (ICCP System 1994), Fuel, v.77(5), pp. 349–357.
Indian Standard Institution (1981) Indian standard methods of test for coal and coke, Part I Proximate analysis. IS: 1350 (Part I)-1969, First Revision, pp.1-24.
Jackson, K.S., Hawkins, P.J. and Bennet, A.J.R. (1985) Regional facies and geochemical evolution of the Southern Denison Trough. Australian Petrol. Explor. Assoc. Jour., v.20(1), pp.143–58.
Jin, J. and Shi, S. (1997) The development and prospective application of coal direct liquefaction for Chinese coals. Proceeding of International Symposium on Clean Coal Technology, Xiamen, China Coal Industry Publishing House, 379p.
Kalkreuth, W., Kotis, T., Papanicolaou, C. and Kokkinakis, P. (1991) The geology and coal petrology of a Miocene lignite profile at Meliadi Mine, Katerini, Greece. Internat. Jour. Coal Geol., v.17, pp.51–67.
Khorasani, G.K., Murchison, D.G. (1988) Order of generation of petroleum hydrocarbons from liptinitic material with increasing maturity, Fuel, v.67, pp.1160–1162.
La Touche, T.H.D. (1882) The Daranggiri coalfield, Garo Hills, Assam. Rec. Geol. Surv. India. v.XV, pt.3, pp.175–178.
Lafargue, E., Marquis, F. and Pillot, D. (1998) Rock-Eval 6 applications in hydrocarbon hxploration, production, and soil contamination studies, in Revue de I’stitut François du Petrolé, v.53(4), pp.421–437.
Langford, F.F. and Blanc-Valleron, M.-M. (1990) Interpreting Rock-Eval pyrolysis data using graphs of pyrolizable hydrocarbons vs. total organic carbon. AAPG Bull., v.74(6), pp.799–804.
Li, X., Zhuang, X.G., Zhou, J.B., Wang, H. and Ma, X.P. (2010) Coal facies analysis of thick coal seam of middle Jurassic Xishanyao Formation in the middle part of eastern Junggar coal field, Xinjiang. Geol. Sci. Tech., v.29(5), pp.84–88.
Lin, M.Y. and Tian, L. (2011) Petrographic characteristics and depositional environment of the No. 9 Coal (Pennsylvanian) from the Anjialing Mine, Ningwu Coalfield, China. Energy Exploration & Exploitation, v.29(2), pp.196–204.
Marques, M. (2002) Coal facies and depositional environments of the Aurora and Cabeza de Vaca Units, Penarroya-Belmez-Espiel Coalfield (Cordoba, Spain). Internat. Jour. Coal Geol., pp.48, pp.197-216.
Medlicott, H.B. (1868) Coal in Garow Hills. Rec. Geol. Surv. India, v.1, pt.1.
Misra, B.K. (1992) Optical properties of some Tertiary coals from northeastern India: their depositional environment and hydrocarbon potential. Internat. Jour. Coal Geol., v.20, pp.115–144.
Misra, B.K. and Ghosh, R.K. (1996) Geology, petrology and utilisation potential of some Tertiary coals of the Northeastern region of India. Internat. Jour. Coal Geol., v.30, pp.65–100.
Moore, E.S. (1940) Coal, its properties, analysis, classification, geology, extraction, uses, and Distribution. 2nd ed., John Wiley, New York.
Mukhopadhyay, P.K. (1986) Petrography of selected Wilcox and Jockson Group lignites from Tertiary of Texas. In: Finkelman R. B. and Casagrada D. J. (Eds.), Geology of Gulf Coast Lignites, Annual Meeting of Geological Society of America, Coal Geology Division Field Trip, pp. 126–145.
Pachin, J. (2008) Coal as a Petroleum Source Rock and Reservoir Rock. In: Suárez-Ruiz, I. and Crelling, J.C. (Eds.), Applied Coal Petrology: the role of petrology in coal utilization, Elsevier, pp.227-262
Peters, K.E. (1986) Guidelines for evaluating petroleum source rock using programmed pyrolysis. AAPG Bull., v.70(3), pp.318–329.
Peters, K.E. and Casa, M.R. (1994) Applied Source Rock Geochemistry. In: Magoon L.B. and Dow W.G. (Eds.), The Petroleum System: From Source to Trap, AAPG, Tulsa, pp.93–120.
Pickel, W., Kus, J, Flores, Kalaitzidis, S., Christanis, K. Cardotte, B. J., Miszennan, M., Rodrigues, S., Hentschel, A., Hamor-Vido, M., Crosdale, P., Wagner, N. and ICCP (2017) Classification of liptinite — ICCP System 1994. Internat. Jour. Coal Geol., v.169, pp.40–61.
Saxena, R.K., Tripathi, S.K.M. and Prasad, V. (1996) Palyno?oral investigation of the Tura Formation (Palaeocene) in Nongwal Bibra area, East Garo Hills, Meghalaya. Geophytology, v.26, pp.19–31.
Senguler, I., Ayyildiz, T., Onal, Y. and Onal, M. (2008) Organic geochemical characterization and mineralogic properties of Mengen oil shale (Lutetian), Bolu-Turkey. Oil Shale, v.25, pp.359–375.
Sharma, A., Phukan, S., Saikia, B.K. and Baruarh, B.P. (2018) Geochemical evaluation of the hydrocarbon prospects of carbonaceous shale and coal of Barail Group, Upper Assam Basin. Internat. Jour. Oil, Gas and Coal Tech., v.19(3), pp. 263–282.
Singh, M.P and Singh, P.K. (1986) Petrographic characterization and evolution of the Permian coal deposits of the Rajmahal basin, Bihar, India. Internat. Jour. Coal Geol., v.29(1–3), pp. 93–118.
Singh, M.P. and Singh, A.K. (2000) Petrographic characteristics and depositional conditions of Eocene coals of platform basins, Meghalaya, India. Internat. Jour. Coal Geol., v.42, pp.315–356.
Singh, M.P. and Singh, A.K. (2001) Source rock characteristics and maturation of Paleogene coals, Northeast India. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.57, pp.353–368.
Singh, P.K. (2012) Petrological and Geochemical considerations to predict oil potential of Rajpardi and Vastan lignite deposits of Gujarat, Western India. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.80(6), pp.759–770.
Singh, P.K., Singh, M.P., Arora, A.K., Arora, M. and Naik, A.S. (2013) Prediction of liquefaction behaviour of East Kalimantan coals of Indonesia: an appraisal through petrography of selected coal samples. Energy Sources Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, v.35, pp.1728–1740.
Stach, E., Taylor, G.H., Mackwosky, M.Th., Teichmuller, M., Taylor, G.S., Chandra, D., Teichmuller, R. (1982) Stach’s textbook of coal petrology. 2nd ed., Gabruder Borntraegar, Berlin, 481p.
Sun, Y.Z. (1998) Influences of secondary oxidation and sulphide formation on several maturity parameters in Kupferschiefer. Organic Geochemistry, v.29, pp.1419–1429.
Sun, Y.Z. and Kalkreuth, W. (2000) Explanation for peat-forming environments of seams 2 and 9(2) based on the lithotype composition in the Xingtai Coalfield, China. Jour. China Univ. Min. Tech., v.10(1), pp.17–21.
Sutcu, E. and Karayigit, A.I. (2009) Depositional environment and coal petrology of Afsin-Elbistan coals, Turkey. Geolines, v.22, pp.73–86.
Teichmüller, M. (1989) The genesis of coal from the viewpoint of coal petrology. Internat. Jour. Coal Geol., v.12, pp.1–87.
Tissot, B.P. and Welte D.H. (1984) Petroleum formation and occurrence, 2nd ed, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York.
Wan Hasiah, A. (2003) Coaly source rocks of NW Borneo: role of suberinite and bituminite in oil generation and expulsion. Bull. Geol. Soc. Malaysia, v.47, pp.153–163.
Waples, D. W. (1994) Maturity Modelling: Thermal Indicators, Hydrocarbon generation, and Oil Cracking. AAPG Mem., v.60, pp.. 285–306.
Ward, C. R. and Suarez-Ruiz, I. (2008) Chapter 1 — Introduction to Applied Coal Petrology. In: Suarez-Ruiz, I. and Crelling. J. C. (eds), Applied Petrology: the role of petrology in coal utilization, Elsevier, pp.1–18.
Ward, C.R. (2002) Analysis and significance of mineral matter in coal seams. Internat. Jour. Coal Geol., v.50, pp.135–168.
Xu, F.M. and Fang, A.M. (2005) The coal facies study of Coal Seam 16 in Yanzhou coal mine. Coal Geol. Explor., v.33(4), pp. 10–15.
The authors are thankful to the Oil India Ltd for extending laboratory facilities for analytical works. The authors are also grateful to the Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India, for updating laboratory facilities in the Department of Geological Sciences, Gauhati University through the FIST-2016 grant, which have been utilized for the present work.
About this article
Cite this article
Gogoi, M., Kumar, T.S. & Phukan, S. Organic Geochemistry, Petrography, Depositional Environment and Hydrocarbon Potential of the Eocene Coal Deposits of west Daranggiri Coalfield, Meghalaya. J Geol Soc India 95, 84–94 (2020) doi:10.1007/s12594-020-1389-0