Seasonal Variations of Streams Hydrochemistry and Relationships with Morphometric/Landcover Parameters in the Bhagirathi Watersheds, Garhwal Himalaya, India
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The Bhagirathi streams are a major source of fresh water in the form of glaciers meltwater streams and monsoonal phenomena. The watersheds of the Bhagirathi basin is trending towards water chemistry as well as changing morphological and land cover features due to the climatic and anthropogenic activity. To understand seasonal hydrochemistry and the impact of watershed morphology a total of 32 stream water samples collected during post and pre-monsoon seasons. The bicarbonate is the most dominant ion in the streams water followed by Na+, Ca+2, SO4−2, Cl−, SiO2, K+, and Mg+2. The results were found that HCO3− is in very good correlation with the base cations Ca+2, Mg+2 and Na+ in both pre and post-monsoon seasons. The higher concentration of HCO3− in Bhagirathi stream water and its positive correlation with Ca+2 and Mg+2 indicates that their main source comes from the dissolution of carbonates. Most of the hydro-chemical parameters (EC, pH) and ions (Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, K+, HCOf−, SO4−2, Cl−, and F−) indicated a relationship with morphometric and land cover and these parameters vary with the season. It is observed that elevation, relief, basin length, area, and perimeter impact on stream water chemistry. Due to the processes of chemical weathering, mixing of the groundwater, snow/glacier meltwater, and surface water components responsible for the seasonal variation in the hydro-chemistry of streams. Impact of agriculture land is more dominant than any land cover followed by barren land and glacier cover that influence the hydrochemistry of streams.
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The authors would like to thank the Chairman, Department of Geology, Aligarh Muslim University for providing the necessary laboratory and library facilities and a great thanks to financial support of AMU/UGC fellowship. Authors are also grateful to Khatib Khan for his help and support to collect some samples of stream melt water.
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