Advertisement

Journal of the Geological Society of India

, Volume 94, Issue 3, pp 275–280 | Cite as

Clay Minerals and Micromorphology of the Loess Paleosols, Kashmir Valley, India

  • Aasif Ali
  • Hema AchyuthanEmail author
  • Mohamad Azhardin
Research Articles
  • 11 Downloads

Abstract

Loess paleosols have been often studied to reconstruct late Quaternary past climate changes. In the present study, textural analysis, TOC, CaCO3 content, micromorphology and clay mineralogy of the three loess paleosol profiles from three sites (Choori, Alochibagh and Burzahama), from Kashmir valley are presented. Based on the dates of Burzahama section, the exposed loess paleosols are approximately dated to 45ka. Textural analyses suggest that the sediments are largely fine silt followed by silty loam and silty clay loam. The fine sand component in the loess and paleosols indicate that winds in the valley were strong, but in phases the wind velocity was low. The paleosols are much thicker than loess layers and form several horizons within the lithosections. The increase of CaCO3 content indicates that it has leached in phases and along with total organic carbon (TOC) resulted in mild pedogenesis with variations in the rate of pedogenesis within the paleosols and forming pedocomplexes. Micromorphology of the loess-paleosols indicates the presence of calcite nodules with iron oxide coating indicating sub-aerial weathering and pedogenesis. The presence of channel structures in loess paleosols formed due to root traces and pores probably during the warmer periods. The replacement of chlorite by smectite clays in loess paleosols suggests that the alteration of clay minerals probably took place in cold, dry, warmer climatic conditions in low wind regime.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgement

Asif Ali is grateful of Anna University, Chennai, for Anna Centenary Research Fellowship (ACRF) that enabled him to carry out this work. The authors are also very thankful to anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions that helped in the presentation of the data and improvement of the text.

References

  1. Agrawal, D. P., Dodia, R., Kotlia, B. S., Razdan, H. and Sahni, A. (1989) The Plio-Pleistocene geologic and climatic records of the Kashmir Valley, India: a review and new data. Palaeogeo. Palaeoclimat. Palaeoeco., v.73, pp.267–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aoubi S, Jalalian A, Eghbal MK, Khademi H. (2002) Identification and genesis of clay mineral in two paleosol from Sepahanshahr (Isfahan) and Emam Gheis (Charmahal-Bakhtiari). Iranian Jour. Crystallo. Mineral., v.10, pp.157–178.Google Scholar
  3. Babeesh, C., Achyuthan, H., Jaiswal, M.K., Lone, A. (2017) Late Quaternary loess-like paleosols and pedocomplexes, geochemistry, provenance and source area weathering, Manasbal, Kashmir Valley, India. Geomorphology, v.284, pp.191–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bronger, A. and Heinkele, T. (1989) Micromorphology and genesis of paleosols in the Luochuan loess section, China: pedostratigraphic and environmental implications. Geoderma, v.45, pp.123–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Buggle, B., Glaser, B., Hambach, U., Gerasimenko, N., Markovic, S.B. (2011) An evaluationof geochemical weathering indices in loess-paleosol studies. Quaternary Internat., v.240, pp. 12–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dar, R.A., Romshoo, S.A., Chandra, R., Ahmad, I. (2014) Tectono-geomorphic study of the Karewa Basin of Kashmir Valley. Jour. Asian Earth Sci., v.92, pp.143–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Emadi, M., Baghernejad, M., Memarian Hamidreza, H., Saffari, M. and Fathi, M. (2008) Genesis and clay mineralogical investigation of highly calcareous soils in semi-arid regions of southern Iran. Jour. Appld. Sci., v.8, pp.288–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fedoroff, N., Courty, M. A. (1987) Morphology and distribution of textural features in arid and semiarid regions. Association Francaise pour l’Etude du Sol, Plaisir, pp. 213–219.Google Scholar
  9. Han, J.M. (1982) A preliminary study on the clay mineralogy of the loess at Luochuan section. Quaternary Geology and Environment of China. Beijing: China Ocean Press.Google Scholar
  10. Kemp, R.A. (1995) Distribution and genesis of calciticpedofeatures within a rapidly aggrading loess-paleosolsequence in China. Geoderma, v.65, pp.303–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kusumgar, S., Agrawal, D.P., Krishnamurthy, R.V. (1980) Studies on the loess deposits of the Kashmir Valley and Dating. Radiocarbon, v.22, pp.757–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Liu, T.S. (1985) Loess and the Environment. Ocean Press, Beijing, pp 251.Google Scholar
  13. Meenakshi, Pankaj Kumar, Shrivastava, J. P., Sharma, R. (2018) High resolution 14C AMS ages (<50 ka) of organic matter associated with the loess-paleosol Holocene-Late Pleistocene (8–130 ka) sediments of Dilpur Formation, Karewa Group, Kashmir, India. Quaternary Geochrono., v.47, pp.170–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Miller, B. A. and Schaetzl, R. J. (2011) Precision of Soil Particle Size Analysis using Laser Diffractometry. Pedology, v.76, pp.1719–1727.Google Scholar
  15. Motamed A. (1998) Quaterner, Tehran University Press. 310 p. (In Persian)Google Scholar
  16. Muhs, D.R., Ager, T.A., Skipp, G., Beann, J., Budahn, J., McGeehin, J.P. (2008) Paleoclimatic significance of chemical weathering in loess-derived paleosols of Subarctic Central Alaska. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Res., v.40. 396–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rousseau, D. D., Derbyshire, E., Antoine, P. and Hatte, C. (2007) Europe. Elsevier B.V., 2 pp.1440–1456.Google Scholar
  18. Rowell, D.L. (1994) Soil Science: methods and applications. Harlow, Longman Scientific and Technical.Google Scholar
  19. Singhvi, A.K., Bronger, A., Pant, R.K. and Sauer, W. (1987) Thermoluminescence dating and its implications for the chronostratigraphy of loess-paleosol sequences in the Kashmir Valley, India. Chemical Geol., v.65, pp.45–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Walkley, A. and I. A. Black. (1934) An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, v.37, pp.29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Zarate, M.A., Kemp, R.A., Espinosa, M. and Ferrero, L. (2000) Pedosedimentary and paleoenvironmental significance of a Holocene alluvial sequence in the southern Pampas, Argentina. The Holocene, v.10, pp.481–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Zhang, Q., Huang, J., Hu, F., Huo, N., Shang, Y., Chang, W. and Zhao, S. (2018) The distribution of organic carbon fractions in a typical loesspaleosol profile and its palaeoenvironmental significance. doi:  https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4611.
  23. Zhengtang, G., Fedoroff, N. and Dongsheng, L. (1996) Micromorphology of the loess paleosols sequence of the last130ka China and Paleoclimatic events. Science in China, v.39, pp.468–477.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Geol. Soc. India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyAnna UniversityChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations