Advertisement

The Morphology and Metallurgical Implications for Extraction of Platinum Group Minerals (PGM’s) in Chromitite

  • P. V. Sunder RajuEmail author
Research Article
  • 1 Downloads

Abstract

This study was carried out on chromitite bearing samples from Sittampundi anorthosite complex (SAC), Tamil Nadu, to understand the morphology of platinum-group minerals (PGM) and associated silicates using state-of-the-art technology QEMSCAN®. The dominant mineralogy of the samples are chromite (>70 mass percent), plagioclase (An90) and chlorite-actinolite with orthopyroxene (En85). The morphology of PGMs grain sizes are varying from 10 − < 3µm in size. Understanding the morphological characteristics of PGMs is essential for the future beneficiation and metallurgical process involved for the extraction of PGMs associated with the chromitite samples to make viable Sittampundi complex a promising target for future PGE exploration.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author thanks Director, CSIR-NGRI, DST-SERB for their kind support.

References

  1. Anderson, J.R., Payne, J.L., Kelsey, D.E., Hand, M., Collins, A.S., And Santosh, M. (2012) High-pressure granulites at the dawn of the Proterozoic. Geology, v.40, pp.431–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen, Jens, C., Rollinson, Gavyn, K., Snook, Ben, Herrington, Richard, Fairhurst, Robert, J. (2009) Use of QEMSCAN® for the characterization of Ni-rich and Ni-poor goethite in laterite ores. Miner. Engg., v.22, pp.1119–1129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhaskar Rao, Y.J., Chetty, T.R.K., Janardhan, A.S. and Goplan, K. (1996) Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr ages and P-T history of the Archaean Sittampundi and Bhavani layered meta-anorthosites complexes in Cauvery shear zone, South India: evidence for Neo Proterozoic reworking of Archaean crust. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., v.125, pp.237–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cabri, L.J. (1980) Determination of ideal formulae for new minerals of the platinum group, in Sulphosalts, Platinum Minerals and Ore Microscopy: Proceedings XI General Meeting of the International Mineralogical Association (Eds.: A.V. Sidorenko, V.S. Sobolev, D.V. Rundquist, I.Y. Nekrasov, T.N. Shadlun, A.D. Genkin, N.N. Mozgova and N S Bortnikov), pp.157–165 (Inst Geology Ore Deposits: Akad Nauk SSSR, Nauka).Google Scholar
  5. Cabri, L.J. (1981) The platinum-group minerals. In: L.J. Cabri (Ed.), Platinum-Group Elements: Mineralogy, Geology, Recovery. The Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy: Montreal, special volume no. 23, pp.85–150.Google Scholar
  6. Clark, C., Healy, D., Johnson, T.E., Collins, A.S., Taylor, R.J., and Santosh, M. (2015) Hot orogens and supercontinent amalgamation: A Gondwanan example from southern India: Gondwana Res., v.28(4), pp.1310–1328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dharma Rao, C.V., Santosh, M. Sajeev, M. and Windley, B.F. (2013) Chromite-silicate chemistry of the Neoarchean Sittampundi Complex, southern India: Implications for subduction -related arc magmatism. Precambrian Res, v.227, pp.259–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Drury, S.A., Harris, N.B.W., Holt, R.W., Reeves-Smith, G.J. and Wightman, R.T. (1984) Precambrian tectonics and crustal evolution in South India. Jour. Geol., v.92, pp.3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Edahabi, M., Benzaoazona, Plank, B., Doire, S. and Kormas (2018) Mineralogical characterization using QEMSCAN and leaching potential of REE within silicate ores. A case study of Matamec project, Qubec, Canada. Jour. Geol. Explo, v.185, pp 64–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ghosh, B and Konar, R. (2011) Chromites from meta anorthosites, Sittampundi layered igneous complex, Tamil Nadu, southern India. Jour. Asian Earth Sci., v.42, pp.1394–1402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ghosh, B. and Konar, R. (2012) Textural developments in chromite deforming under eclogite-facies conditions from the Neoarchean Sittampundi anorthosite complex, southern India. Geol. Jour., v.47, pp.253–262.Google Scholar
  12. Ghosh, J.G., De Wit, M.J. and Zartman, R.E. (2004) Age and tectonic evolution of Neoproterozoic ductile shear zones in the Southern Granulite Terrane of India, with implication Gondwana studies: Tectonics, v.23, p. TC3006, doi:  https://doi.org/10.1029/2002TC001444 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goodall Will, R., Peter J. Scales, Alan R. Butcher (2005) The use of QEMSCAN and diagnostic leaching in the characterisation of visible gold in complex ores. Minerals Engg, v.18, pp.877–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gottlieb, P. and Adair, I. (1991) Quantification of talc rimming of chromites in Bushveld ores using QEM*SEM. ICAM’ 91, International Congress on Applied Mineralogy, Papers. Mineralogical Association of South Africa, Pretoria, 1, Chapter 18, pp1–10.Google Scholar
  15. Gottlieb, P., Butcher, A.R., Walters, S. and Hughes, P.K. (2002) Quantifying mineralogical complexities in magmatic hydrothermal ore bodies with a novel automated SEM based technique — Implications for exploration and mine geologists, IMA, Edinburgh, 1–6 September 2002, p. 277.Google Scholar
  16. Janardhanan, A.S. and Leake, B.E. (1975) The origin of the meta anorthositic gabbros and garniteferous granulites of Sittampundi complex, Madras, India. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.6, pp.391–408.Google Scholar
  17. Mackay Dar., Simandl, G.J., Ma, W., Redfearn, M And Gravel, J (2016) Indicator mineral based exploration for carbonatites and related speciality metal deposits-QEMSCANR orientation survey, British Columbia, Canada. Jour. Geochemical Explor., v.165, pp.159–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Merkle, R.K.W. (1992) Platinum-group minerals in the middle group of chromitite layers at Marinka, Western Bushveld Complex: Indications for collection mechanisms and postmagmatic modification. Canadian Jour. Earth Sci., v.29, pp.209–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Merkle, R.K.W. (1998) Proportions of magmatic platinum-group minerals and evolution of mineralizing processes, UG-1 chromitite layer, Bushveld Complex, in International Platinum, first edition (eds: N PLaverov and VV Distler), pp.43–53 (Theophrastus: St Petersburg)Google Scholar
  20. Mitra, S. and Samantha, A.K. (1996) Rutile exsolution in Fe3+ chromites: A case study from layered granulitic complex of Sittampundi, S. India. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.47, pp.75–82.Google Scholar
  21. Ramadurai, S., Sankaran, M., Selvan, T.A. and Windley, B.F. (1975) The stratigraphy and structure of the Sittampundi complex, Tamil Nadu, India. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.16, pp.409–414.Google Scholar
  22. Rammohan M., Satyanaryanan M., Santosh M., Sylvester P.J., Turbett Mike, Lamrebecca (2013) Neoarchean supra subduction zone arc magmatism in Southern India: Geochemistry, Zircon, U-Pb geochronology, Hf isotopes of the Sittampundi Anorthosite Complex, Gondwana Res., v.23, pp 539–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rao, V.V., Sain, K., Reddy, P.R. and Mooney, W.D. (2006) Crustal structure and tectonics of the northern part of the southern granulite terrane, India. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., v.251, pp.90–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sajeev, K., Windely, B.F., Connolly, J.A.P. and Kon, Y. (2009) RetroGressed eclogite (20 kbar, 1020°C) from the Neoproterozoic Palghat-Cauvery suture zone, Southern India. Precambrian Res., v.171, pp.23–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Satyanarayanan, M., Sylvester, P.J. (2010) PGE Mineralization in the late Archaean Sittampundi Layered Complex, Southern India. Brown, G.H., Jugo, P.J., Lesher, C.M. and Mungall, J.E. (Eds.), Abstracts, 11th International Platinum Symposium, 21–24 June 2010, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; Ontario Geological Survey, Miscellaneous Release—Data.Google Scholar
  26. Saitoh, Y., Tsunogae, T., Santosh, M., Chetty, T.R.K., and Horie, K. (2011) Neoarchean high-pressure meta-morphism from the northern margin of the Palghat- Cauvery suture zone, southern India: Petrology and zircon SHRIMP geochronology: Jour. Asian Earth Sci., v.42, pp.268–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Santosh, M., Shaji, E., Tsunogae, T., Ram Mohan, M., Satyanarayana, M., and Horie, K. (2013) Supra subduction zone ophiolite from Agali Hill: Petrology, zircon SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and implications for Neoarchean plate tectonics in southern India. Precambrian Res., v.231, pp.301–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Subramaniam, P. (1956) Mineralogy and petrology of the Sittampundi complex, Salem district, Madras state, India. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., v.67, pp.317–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sunder Raju, P.V. and Merkle, R.K.W. (2007) Native platinum, chromite and Fe-Ni sulphides in Sittampundi Anorthosite complex. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.70, pp.680–682.Google Scholar
  30. Sunder Raju, P.V., Merkle, R.K.W. and Whiteman, E. (2008) QEMSCAN® and Microprobe studies on the Chromitite of Sittampundi Anorthosite Complex, Tamil Nadu — Implications for PGE Mineralisation, Proceedings volume Ninth International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM) pp.199–205. AUSIMM Publications, Australia.Google Scholar
  31. Von Gruenewaldt, G. and Merkle, R.K.W. (1995) Platinum-group element proportions in chromitites of the Bushveld Complex — Implications for fractionation and magma mixing models. Jour. African Earth Sci., v.21, pp.615–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Windley, B.F. and Selvan, T.A. (1975). Anorthosites and associated rocks of Tamil Nadu, southern India. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.16, pp.209–215.Google Scholar
  33. Windley, B.F., Bishop, F.C. and Smith, J.V. (1981) Metamorphosed layered igneous complexes in Archean granulite-gneiss belts. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., v.9, pp.175–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© GEOL. SOC. INDIA 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CSIR-National Geophysical Research InstituteHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations