Journal of the Geological Society of India

, Volume 92, Issue 6, pp 695–703 | Cite as

Estimation of Natural Radionuclides and Exhalation Rate in Surface Soils of Four Districts of Haryana, India

  • Amanjeet Panghal
  • Ajay KumarEmail author
  • Suneel Kumar
  • Joga Singh
  • Parminder Singh
  • B. S. Bajwa


A comprehensive study is conducted to determine the elemental concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K in surface soil samples collected from four well-populated districts of central part of Haryana, India. NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer is used for measurement of 238U, 232Th and 40K in soil samples and SMART RnDuo is used for estimation of exhalation rate in soil samples. Average values of activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K are 27.9 ± 6.0 Bqkg-1, 34.0 ± 6.6 Bqkg-1 and 306.9 ± 15.9 Bqkg-1, respectively. Radium equivalent activity is lower than the recommended limits with an average value of 97.98 Bqkg-1. Absorbed dose rates in air outdoors, effective dose rates for indoor and outdoor, internal and external hazard index, radium equivalent activities and annual effective dose are measured in soil sample of the study area. A weak positive correlation is observed between radionuclides and exhalation rate.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ademola, A.K., Bello, A.K. & Adejumobi, A.C. (2014) Determination of natural radioactivity and hazard in soil samples in and around gold mining area in Itagunmodi, South-Western, Nigeria. Jour. Radiation Res. Appld. Sci., v.7, pp.249–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed, E.M.F. (2016) Determination of the natural radioactivity levels in selected areas of Zarqa, Jordan. Internat. Jour. Phyiscs, v.6(3), pp.7–12.Google Scholar
  3. Ajayi O.S. (2009) Measurement of activity concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th for assessment of radiation hazards from soils of the southwestern region of Nigeria. Radiation Environment Biophysics, v.48, pp.323–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akhtara, N., Tufailb, M., Ashrafc, M. & Iqbal, M.M. (2005) Measurement of environmental radioactivity for estimation of radiation exposure from saline soil of Lahore, Pakistan. Radiation Measurements, v.39, pp.11–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-khateeb, H.M., Al-qudah, A.A., Alzoubi, F.Y., Alqadi, M. K. and Aljarrah, K.M. (2012) Radon concentration and radon effective dose rate in dwellings of some villages in the district of Ajloun, Jordan. Appld. Radiation and Isotopes, v.70(8), pp.1579–1582. DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2012.04.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amrani, D. and Tahtat, M. (2001) Natural radioactivity in Algerian building materials. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, v.54(4), pp.687–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bajwa, B.S., Sharma, N., Walia, V. and Virk, H.S. (2003) Measurements of Natural Radioactivity in Some Water and Soil Samples of Punjab State, India. Indoor and Built Environ., v.12(5), pp.357–361. DOI:10.1177/142032603035631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bajwa, B.S., Singh, H., Singh, J. and Singh, S. (2009) A comparative study of indoor radon levels and inhalation dose in some areas of Punjab and Haryana, India, Indian Jour. Physics, v.83, pp.1183–1189.Google Scholar
  9. Bajwa, B.S., Singh, H., Singh, J., Singh, S. and Walia V. (2008) A combination study of indoor radon and gamma radiation levels in Tusham ring complex. Radiation Measurements, v.43, pp.S475–S478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bala, P., Mehra, R. and Ramola, R.C., 2014. Distribution of natural radioactivity in soil samples and radiological hazards in building material of Una, Himachal Pradesh. Jour. Geochem. Explor., 142, pp.11–15. DOI:10.1016/j.gexplo.2014.02.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baloguna, F.A., Mokobiab, C.E., Fasasia, M.K. and Ogundarec, F.O. (2003) Natural radioactivity associated with bituminous coal mining in Nigeria. Nuclear Instrument and Methods in Physics Res., v.A505, pp.444–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bangotra, P., Mehra, R., Jakhu, R., Kaur, K., Pandit, P. and Kanse, S., (2017) Estimation of 222Rn exhalation rate and assessment of radiological risk from activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. Jour. Geochem. Explor. DOI:10.1016/j.gexplo.2017.05.002.Google Scholar
  13. Beretka J. and Mathew, P.J. (1985) Natural radioactivity of Australian building materials, waste and by-products. Health Phys., v.48, pp.87–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bozkurt, A., Orulmaz, N.Y., Kam, E., Karahan, G. and Osmanlioglu, A.E., 2007, Assessment of environmental radioactivity for Sanliurfa region of southeastern Turkey, Radiation Measurements, v.42, pp.387–1391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chauhan, R.P. and Chakarvarti, S.K. (2002) Radon exhalation rates from soils and stones as building materials. Indian Jour. Pure and Appld. Physics, v.40, pp.670–673.Google Scholar
  16. Chauhan, R.P., Chauhan, P., Pundir, A., Kamboj, S., Bansal, V. and Sainy, R.S. (2014) Estimation of dose contribution from 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and radon exhalation rates in soil samples from Shivalik Foot hills in India. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, v.158, pp.79–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cothern, C.R., Lappenbusch, W.L. and Michel, J. (1986) Drinking-water contribution to natural background radiation. Health Physics, v.50(1), pp.33–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Das, B.P. (2000) Cancer Pattern In Haryana: Twenty-One Years Experience. Health Adminstration, v.17(1), pp.29–49.Google Scholar
  19. Duggal, V., Mehra, R. and Rani, A. (2015) Study of Radium and Radon Exhalation Rate in Soil Samples from Areas of Northern Rajasthan. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.86, pp.331–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Duggal, V., Rani, A., Mehra, R. and Ramola, R.C. (2013) Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels and Associated Dose Rates in Soil Samples from Northern, Rajasthan, India. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, v.158(2), pp.235–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gupta, M. and Chauhan, R.P. (2011) Estimating radiation dose from building materials. Iranian Jour. Radiation Res., v.9(3), pp.187–194.Google Scholar
  22. Gupta, M., Gupta, M., Mahur, A.K., Sonkawade, R.G. and Prasad R. (2010) Measurement of radon activity, exhalation rate and radiation doses in fly ash samples from NTPC Dadri, India. Indian Jour. Pure Appld. Physics, v.48(7), pp.520–523.Google Scholar
  23. International commission on radiological protection. ICRP. (1990) ICRP publication 60, vol 21, Pargamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  24. Iqbal, M., Tufail, M. and Mirza, S.M. (2000) Measurement of natural radioactivity in marble found in Pakistan using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. Jour. Environ. Radioactivity, v.51(2), pp.255–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jakhu, R., Mehra, R., Bangotra, P. and Mittal, H.M. (2017) Estimation of terrestrial radionuclide concentration and effect of soil parameters on exhalation and emanation rate of radon. Jour. Geochem. Explor. DOI:10.1016/j.gexplo.2017.03.002.Google Scholar
  26. Kansal, S., & Mehra, R. (2015) Evaluation and analysis of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and radon exhalation rate in the soil samples for health risk assessment. Internat. Jour. Low Radiation, v.10(1), pp.1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kansal, S., Mehra, R., Singh, N.P., Badhan, K. and Sonkawade, R.G. (2010) Analysis and assessment of radiological risk in soil samples of Hisar district of Haryana, India. Indian Jour. Pure Appld. Physics, v.48, pp.512–515.Google Scholar
  28. Kanse, S.D., Sahoo, B.K., Spara, B.K., Gaware, J.J. & Mayya, Y.S., 2013. Powder sandwich technique: A novel method for determining the thoron emanation potential of powders bearing high 224Ra content. Radiation Measurements, v.48(1), pp.82–87. DOI:10.1016/j.radmeas.2012.10.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kochhar, N. (1989) High Heat Producing Granites of the Malani Igneous Suite Northern Peninsular, India, Indian Minerals, v.45, pp.339–346.Google Scholar
  30. Kumar, A. and Kaur, A. (2014) A study of radon concentration in water and radon exhalation rate in soil samples belonging to Kapurthala district, Punjab, India. Adv. Appld. Sci. Res., v.5(1), pp.43–47.Google Scholar
  31. Kumar, A., Manish, R. and Chauhan, R.P. (2014) Implications of variability in Indoor radon /thoron levels/: a study of dwellings in Haryana, India. Environ. Earth Sci., v.73, pp.4033–4042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kumar, A., Kumar, M., Singh, B. and Singh, S. (2003) Natural activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K in some Indian building materials, Radiation Measurements, v.36, pp.465–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Maan, N., Kumar, S., Kumar, A., Chauhan, R.P. and Garg, A.K. (2014) Measurement of radon exhalation rates in soil samples from western Haryana. ISST Jour. Appld. Physics, v.5(2), pp.56–59.Google Scholar
  34. Mahur, A.K., Kumar, R., Mishra, M., Ali, S.A., Sonkawade, R.G., Singh, B.P., Bhardwaj, V.N. and Prasad, R. (2010) Study of radon exhalation rate and natural radioactivity in soil samples collected from East Singhbhum Shear Zone in Jaduguda U-Mines Area, Jharkhand, India and its radiological implications. Indian Jour. Pure Appld. Physics, v.48, pp.486–492.Google Scholar
  35. Malanca, A., Gaidolfi, L., Pessina, V. and Dallara, G. (1996) Distribution of 226Ra,232Th, and 40K in soils of Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil), Jour. Environ. Radioactivity, v.30, pp.55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mayya, Y.S., Eappen, K.P. and Nambi, K.S.V. (1998) Methodology for mixed field inhalation dosimetry in monazite areas using a twin-cup dosemeter with three track detectors. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, v.77(3), pp.177–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mehra, R. (2009) Radiological Risk Assessment in Soil Samples of Western Haryana, India. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, v.3(6), pp.448–452.Google Scholar
  38. Mehra, R., Kumar, S., Sonkawade, R., Singh, N.P. and Badhan, K. (2009) Analysis of terrestrial naturally occurring radionuclides in soil samples from some areas of Sirsa district of Haryana, India using gamma ray spectrometry. Environ. Earth Sci., v.59(5), pp.1159–1164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mehra, R., Singh, S. and Singh, K. (2006) A Study of Uranium, Radium, Radon Exhalation Rate and Indoor Radon in the Environs of Some Areas of the Malwa Region, Punjab. Indoor and Built Environment, v.15(5), pp.499–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mehta, V. and Shikha, D. (2016) Measurement of Radon Exhalation Rates from Soil Samples of Some Villages of Ambala, Haryana. Schadian Jour. Physics, Mathematics & Statistics, v.3(2), pp.66–68.Google Scholar
  41. Mehta, V., Singh, S.P, Chauhan, R.P. and Mudahar, G.S. (2015) Study of Indoor Radon, Thoron, Their Progeny Concentration and Radon Exhalation Rate in the Environs of Mohali, Punjab, Northern India. Aerosol and Air Quality Res., v.5, pp.1380–1389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Murugesan, S., Mullainathan, S., Ramasamy, V. and Meenakshisundaram, V. (2011) Radioactivity and radiation hazard assessment of Cauvery River, Tamilnadu, India. Iran Jour. Radiation Res., v.8, pp.211–222.Google Scholar
  43. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. OECD. (1979) Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in building materials, Report by a group of experts of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris, France. ORTEC Maestro-32: Gamma-ray spectrum analysis and MCA emulator. A65-32 Software user’s manual (V 6.0). ORTEC 2000.Google Scholar
  44. Panghal, A., Kumar, A., Kumar, S., Singh, J., Sharma, S., Singh, P., Mehra, R. and Bajwa, B.S. (2017) Radiation dose-dependent risk on individuals due to ingestion of uranium and radon concentration in drinking water samples of four districts of Haryana, India. Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids. DOI: 10.1080/10420150.2017.1336762.Google Scholar
  45. Psichoudaki, M. and Papefthymiou, H. (2008) Natural radioactivity measurements in the city of P tolemais (Northern Greece). Jour. Environ. Radioactivity, v.99, pp.1011–1017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Quindos, L. S., Fernandez, P. L., & Soto J. (1987) Building Material as Source of Exposure in Houses, Indoor Air, v.87, pp.365.Google Scholar
  47. Ramli, A.T., Wahab, A., Hussein, M.A. & Wood, A.K., 2005. Environmental 238U and 232Th concentration measurements in an area of high level natural background radiation at Palong, Johor, Malaysia. Jour. Environ. Radioactivity, 8v.0(3), pp.287–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ramola, R.C., Gusain, G.S., Badoni, M., Prasad, Y., Prasad, G. and Ramachandran, T.V. (2008) 226Ra, 232Th and 40K contents in soil samples from Garhwal Himalaya, India, and its radiological implications. Jour. Radiological Protection, v.28, pp.379–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rani, A., Mittal, S., Mehra, R. and Ramola, R.C. (2015) Assessssment of natural radionuclides in the soil samples from Marwar region of Rajasthan, India. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, v.101, pp.122–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sahoo, B.K., Agarwal, T.K., Gaware, J.J. and Sapra, B.K. (2014) Thoron interference in radon exhalation rate measured by solid state nuclear track detector based can technique. Jour. Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, v.302(3), pp.1417–1420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sahoo, B.K., Nathwani, D, Eappen, K.P., Ramchandarn, T.V., Gaware, J.J. and Mayya, Y.S., 2007. Estimation of radon emanation factor in Indian building materials. Radiation Measurements, v.42(8), pp.1422–1425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sahoo, B.K., Sapra, B.K., Gaware, J.J., Kanse, S.D. and Mayya, Y.S., 2011. A model to predict radon exhalation from walls to indoor air based on the exhalation from building material samples. Sci. Total Environ., v.409(13), pp.2635–2641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sahoo, S.K., Mohapatra, S., Sethy, N.K., Patra, A.C., Shukla, A.K., Kumar, A.V., Kumar, R., Tripathi, M. and Puranik, V.D., 2010. Natural radioactivity in road side soil along Jamshedpur-Musabani road: A mineralized and mining region, Jharkhand and associated risk. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, pp.1–6.Google Scholar
  54. Shagjjamba, D. and Zuzaan, P., 2006. Results of Radiation Level Study in Some Territories of Mongolia. Physics of Particles and Nuclei Letter, v.3(1), pp.65–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sharma, D. K., Kumar, A., Kumar, M. and Singh, S. (2003) Study of uranium, radium and radon exhalation rate in soil samples from some areas of Kangra district, Himachal Pradesh, India using solid-state nuclear track detectors. Radiation Measurements, v.36(1–6), pp.363–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Shoeib, M.Y. & Thabayneh, K.M. (2014) Assessment of natural radiation exposure and radon exhalation rate in various samples of Egyptian building materials. Jour. Radiation Res. Appld. Sci., v.7(2), pp.174–181. DOI:10.1016/j.jrras.2014.01.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Singh, J., Singh, H., Singh, S. and Bajwa, B.S. (2007) Indoor Radon Measurements in Dwellings of Some Areas of Upper Siwaliks, India using SSNTDs. Indoor and Built Environment, v.16(6), pp.573–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Singh, J., Singh, H., Singh, S., Bajwa, B.S. and Sonkawade, R.G. (2009) Comparative study of natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from the Upper Siwaliks and Punjab, India using gamma-ray spectrometry. Jour. Environmental Radioactivity, v.100(1), pp.94–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Singh, P., Singh, P., Bajwa, B.S. and Sahoo, B.K. (2017) Radionuclide contents and their correlation with radon-thoron exhalation in soil samples from mineralized zone of Himachal Pradesh, India. Jou. Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, v.311(1), pp.253–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Singh, S., Baldev, S. and Kumar, A. (2003) Natural radioactivity measurements in soil samples from Himachal Pradesh, India. Radiation Measurements, v.36, pp.547–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Singh, S., Sharma, D.K., Dhar, S., Kumar, A. and Kumar, A. (2007) Uranium, radium and radon measurements in the environs of nurpur area, Himachal Himalayas, India. Environ. Monit. Assess., v.128(1–3), pp.301–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Turham. S., Baykan, U.N. and Sen K. (2008) Measurement of the natural radioactivity in building materials used in Ankara and assessment of external doses, Jour. Radiological Protection, v.28, pp.83–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Turhan, S., Baykan, U.N. and Sen, K. (2008). Measurement of the natural radioactivity in building materials used in Ankara and assessment of external doses. Jour. Radiological Protection, v.28(1), pp.83–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tzortzis, M. and Tsertos, H., 2004. Determination of thorium, uranium and potassium elemental concentrations in surface soils in Cyprus. Jour. Environ. Radioactivity, v.77(3), pp.325–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tzortzis, M., Tsertos, H., Christofides, S. and Christodoulides, G. (2003) Gamma-ray measurements of naturally occurring radioactive samples from Cyprus characteristic geological rocks. Radiation Measurements, v.37, pp.221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation, UNSCEAR. Radiation Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. New York: USA: United Nations. Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation to General Assembly (2000).Google Scholar
  67. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation, UNSCEAR. 2008. Sources and Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. United Nations, New York.Google Scholar
  68. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation, UNSCEAR. 2006. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, United Nations: New York.Google Scholar
  69. Xinwei, L., Xiaoxue, L., Pujun, Y., Dacheng, L., Lijun, W., Chunhui, R. and Cancan, C. (2011) Measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of associated radiation hazards in soil around Baoji second coal-fired thermal power plant China. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, pp.1–8.Google Scholar
  70. Yu, K.N., Guan, Z.J., Stokes, M.J. and Young, E.C.M. (1992) The assessment of the natural radiation dose committed to the Hong Kong people. Jour. Environmental Radioactivity, v.17(1), pp.31–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zubair, M., Khan, M.S. and Verma, D., 2012. Measurement of radium concentration and radon exhalation rates of soil samples collected from some areas of Bulandshahr district, Uttar Pradesh, India using plastic track detectors. Iranian Jour. Radiation Res., v.10(2), pp.83–87.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Geological Society of India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amanjeet Panghal
    • 1
  • Ajay Kumar
    • 2
    Email author
  • Suneel Kumar
    • 1
  • Joga Singh
    • 3
  • Parminder Singh
    • 4
  • B. S. Bajwa
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsChandigarh University, GharuanMohaliIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsDAV CollegeAmritsarIndia
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsKhalsa CollegeAmritsarIndia
  4. 4.Department of PhysicsGuru Nanak Dev UniversityAmritsarIndia

Personalised recommendations