Advertisement

Genesis of the Sulfide Hosted Refractory Gold Occurrences within the Carbonaceous Metasedimentary Units of the Dalma Volcano-sedimentary Basin, North Singbhum Mobile Belt, Eastern India

  • Mousoma Khatun
  • Sahendra Singh
Article

Abstract

Paleo-Mesoproterozoic (1.0-2.4 Ga) north Singhbhum mobile belt (NSMB) is one of the prominent polymetallic mineral belt within the Singhbhum crustal province of eastern India lying between Chotanagpur gneissic complex (CGC) in the north and the Archaean Singhbhum craton (>2.4 Ga) in the south. The study area is located along the northern fringe of Dalma volcano-sedimentary basin. Lithological variations, structure, metamorphism and tectonic setting indicate good prospect for regional gold exploration within this area.Extensive work by Geological Survey of India (GSI) within this basin reveals gold occurrences with its concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 4 ppm within the carbonaceous cherty quartzite. Gold mineralization within the area has been reported to be associated with quartz ± quartz carbonate vein either as disseminated gold or as refractory gold within the sulfides. A detailed study on the occurrence of refractory gold associated with carbonaceous cherty quartzite has not been carried out by any of the previous workers. The present work report the occurrence of refractory gold associated with sulfides within the carbonaceous host rocks. Detailed petrographic studies of the carbonaceous host rock reveal the presence of sulfides such as pyrrhotite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite. EPMA studies of the host rocks indicate the presence of invisible gold within the sulfides varying in concentration from 100 to 1000 ppm. Total organic carbon (TOC), high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) analysis show the presence of organic carbon within the samples. Presence of organic carbon facilitates reducing environment required for gold mineralization within carbonaceous host rock in the study area.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ashley, P.M., Creagh, C.J., Ryan, C.G. (2000) Invisible Gold in Ore and Mineral Concentrates from the Hillgrove Gold-Antimony Deposits, NSW, and Australia. Mineralium Deposita, v.35, pp.285–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhattacharya, H.N., Mahapatra, S. (2008) Evolution of the Proterozoic Rift Margin Sediments, North Singhbhum Mobile Belt, Jharkhand-Orissa, India. Precambrian Res., v.162, pp.302–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhattacharya, D.S., Dasgupta, D. (1979) Chemical Clues to the Origin of Basic Fragments Embedded in a Basaltic Suite of the Precambrian Metamorphic Terrain of Singhbhum, Eastern India. Contib. Mineral. Petrol., v.71, pp.177–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bose, M.K., Chakraborti, M.K., Saunders, A.D. (1989) Petrochemistry of the Lavas from Proterozoic Dalma Volcanic Belt, Singhbhum, Eastern India. Geologische Rundschau, v.78(2), pp.633–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boyle, R.W. (1980), The Geochemistry of Gold and its Deposits. Geol. Surv. Canada Bull., pp.1–533.Google Scholar
  6. Boyle, R.W. (1987) Gold: History and Genesis Of Deposits: Van Nostrand-Reinhold Company, New York, pp.583–585Google Scholar
  7. Bürg, G.H. (1930) Die Sichtbarmachung Des Feinverteilten Goldes In Goldhaltigen Erzen Und Ihre Wirtschaftliche Bedeutung. Metall und Erz, v.27, pp.333–338.Google Scholar
  8. Cabri, L.J., Chryssoulis, S.L., Devilliers, J.P.R., Laflamme, J.H.G., Buseck, P.R. (1989) The Nature of ''Invisible'' Gold in Arsenopyrite: Canadian Mineral., v.27, pp.353–362.Google Scholar
  9. Cabri, L.J., Chryssoulis, S.L., Campbell, J.L., Teesdale, W.J. (1991) Comparison of In-Situ Gold Analyses in Arsenian Pyrite. Appld. Geochem., v.6, pp.225–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cathelineau, M., Boiron, M.C., Holliger, P., Marion, P., Denis, M. (1989) Gold in Arsenopyrites:Crystal Chemistry, Location and State, Physical and Chemical Conditions of Deposition. Econ. Geol., v.6, pp.328–341Google Scholar
  11. Chakraborti, M.K. (1980) On the Pyroclastic Rocks of Dalma Volcanic Sequence, Singhbhum, Bihar. Indian Jour. Earth Sci., v.7, pp.216–222.Google Scholar
  12. Chakraborti, M.K., Bose, M.K. (1985) Evaluation of the Tectonic Setting of Precambrian Dalma Volcanic Belt, Eastern India Using Trace Element Data. Precambrian Res., v.28, pp.253–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chatterjee, P., De.S., Ranaivoson, M., Mazumder, R., Arima, R. (2013) A Review of the ~1600 Ma Sedimentation,Volcanism and Tectono-Thermal Events in The Singhbhum Craton, Eastern Indian Craton. Geoscience Frontiers, v.4, pp.277–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen, Y., Mastelerz, M., Schimmelmann, A. (2012) Characterization of chemical functional groups in macerals across different coal ranks via Micro-FTIR Spectroscopy. Internat. Jour. Coal Geol., v.104, pp.22–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cook, N.J., Chryssoulis, S.L. (1990) Concentrations of ''Invisible'' gold in the Common Sulfides. Canadian Mineral., v.28, pp.1–16.Google Scholar
  16. Dunn, J.A. (1929) Geology of North Singhbhum Including Parts of Ranchi and Manbhum Districts. Mem. Geol. Surv. India, v.54, pp.1–166.Google Scholar
  17. Dunn, J.A., Dey, A.K. (1942) The Geology and Petrology of Eastern Singhbhum and Surrounding Areas. Mem. Geol. Surv. India, v.69(2), pp.281–456.Google Scholar
  18. Errikson, P.G., Mazumder, R., Sarkar, S., Bose, P.K., Altermann, W., Van Der Merwee, R. (1999) The 2.7-2.0 Ga Volcano-Sedimentary Record of Africa, India and Australia: Evidence for Global and Local Changes in Sea Level and Continental Freeboard. Precambrian Res., v.97, pp.269–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Friedl, J., Wagner, F.E., Wang, N. (1995) On the Chemical State of Combined Gold in Sulfidic Ores. Conclusions from Mo¨Ssbauer Source Experiments. Neu. Jah. fur Mineralogie, Abhandlungen, v.169, pp.279–290.Google Scholar
  20. Fleet, M.E. and Mumin, A.H. (1997) Gold-Bearing Arsenian Pyrite, Marcasite and Arsenopyrite from Carlin Trend Gold Deposits and Laboratory Synthesis. American Mineral., v.82, pp.182–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Galley, A.G., Hannigton, M.D., Jonasson, I.R. (2007) Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide Deposits. In: Goodfellow, W.D., (Ed.), Mineral Deposits of Canada: A Synthesis of Major Deposits Types, District Metallogeny, The Evolution of Geological Province and Exploration Methods. Geol. Assoc. Canada. Mineral Deposits Division, Spec. Publ., v.5, pp.141–161.Google Scholar
  22. Genkin, A.D., Bortnikov, N.S., Cabri, L.J., Wagner, F.E., Stanley, C.J., Safonov, Y.G., Mcmahon, G., Friedl, J., Kerzin, A.L., Gamyanin, G.N. (1998) A Multidisciplinary Study of Invisible Gold in Arsenopyrite from Mesothermal Gold Deposits in Siberia, Russian Federation. Econ. Geol., v.93, pp.463–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gupta, A., Basu, A., Ghosh, P.K. (1980) The Proterozoic Ultramafic and Mafic Lavas and Tuffs of the Dalma Greenstone Belt, Singhbhum, Eastern India. Canadian Jour. Earth Sci., v.17, pp.210–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gupta, A., Basu, A., Ghosh, P.K. (1982) Ultramafic Volcaniclastics of the Precambrian Dalma Volcanic Belt, Singhhum, Eastern India. Geol. Magz., v.119, pp.505–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gupta, A., Basu, A. (2000) North Singhbhum Proterozoic Mobile Belt, Eastern India-A review. Geol. Surv. India Spec. Publ., v.55, pp.195–226.Google Scholar
  26. Hough, R.M., Noble, R.R.P., Reich, M. (2011) Natural Gold Nanoparticles. Ore Geol. Rev., v.42, pp.55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jha, V., Singh, S., Venkatesh, A.S. (2015) Invisible Gold Occurrence within the Quartz Reef Pyrite of Babaikundi Area, North Singhbhum Fold and Thrust Belt, Eastern Indian Shield: Evidences from Petrographic, SEM and EPMA Studies. Ore Geol. Rev., v.65, pp.426–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Keith, M., Hackle, F., Haase, K.M., Schampera, U.S., Klemd, R. (2016) Trace Element Systematic of Pyrite from Submarine Hydrothermal Vent. Ore Geol. Rev., v.72, pp.728–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Large, R.R., Danyushevsky, L., Hollit, C., Maslennikov, V., Meffre, S., Gilbert, S., Bull, S., Scott, R., Emsbo, P., Thomas, H., Singh, B., Foster, J. (2009) Gold and Trace Element Zonation in Pyrite Using a Laser Imaging Technique: Implications for the Timing of Gold in Orogenic and Carlin-Style Sediment-Hosted Deposits. Econ. Geol., v.104, pp.635–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li, J., Daming, F., Jeng, Q., Guilan, Z. (1994) The Existence of Negative Valence State of Gold in Sulfide Minerals and its Formation Mechanism [Abs]. International Mineralogical Association, General Meeting, 16th Pisa Sept 4–9, 1994, Abstracts, pp.219–236Google Scholar
  31. Maddox, M., Bancroft, G.M., Scaini, M..J, Lorimer, J.W. (1998) Invisible Gold: Comparison of Au Deposition on Pyrite and Arsenopyrite. American Mineral., v.83, pp.1240–1245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mahadevan, T.M. (2002) Geology of Bihar and Jharkhand. Geological Society of India, Bangalore, pp.169-192, 193–230.Google Scholar
  33. Mahato, S., Goon, S., Bhattacharya, A., Mishra, B., Bernhardt, Heinz, J. (2008) Thermotectonic Evolution of the North Singhbhum Mobile Belt (Eastern India): A View from the Western Part of the Belt. Precambrian Res., v.162, pp.102–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Maurya, V.P., Shalivahan, Bhattacharya, B.B., Adhikari, P.K., Das, L.K. (2015) Preliminary Magnetotelluric Results across Dalma Volcanic, Eastern India: Inferences on Metallogeny. Jour. Appld. Geophys., v.115, pp.171–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mazumder, R. (2000) Turbulance-Particle Interactions and their Implications for Sediment Transportand Bedform Mechanics under Unidirectional Current; Some Recent Developments. Earth Sci. Rev., v.50, pp.113–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mazumder, R. (2003) Correlations between the Eastern Block of the North China Craton and the South Indian Block of the Indian Shield:An Archaean to Paleoproterozoic Link-Comment. Precam. Res., v.127, pp.379–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mazumder, R. (2005) Proterozoic Sedimentation and Volcanism in the Singhbhum Crustal Province, India and their Implications. Sediment. Geol., v.176, pp.167–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Misra, S., Johnson, P.T. (2005) Geochronological Constraints on Evolution of Singhbhum Mobile Belt and Associated Basic Volcanics of Eastern Indian Shield. Gondwana Res., v.8(2), pp.129–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mukherjee, R., Venkatesh, A.S. (2016) Albititte hosted gold-sulfide mineralization: An example from the Paleoproterozoic Aravalli supracrustal Sequence, Bhukia Area, Western India. Episodes, v.39(4), pp.590–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mukherjee, A., Basu, S., Manna, P. K., Yusuf, S.M. and Pal, M. (2014) Giant Magnetodielectric and Enhanced Multiferroic Properties of Sm Doped Bismuth Ferrite Nanoparticles. Jour. Materials Chemistry. C, v.2, pp.5885–5891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mukhopadhaya, D. (1999) Precambrian Plate Tectonics in the Eastern Indian Shield. In: Synchanthavog, S.P.H. (Ed.), Custal Evolution And Orogeny. Oxford IHB Publ. Co., pp.75–100.Google Scholar
  42. Mukhopadhaya, D. (1994) Evolution of the Precambrian Terrane of Singhbhum. Extended Abstract, Symp on Mantle Dynamics and its Relation to Earthquakes and Volcanism, Calcutta, pp.45–48.Google Scholar
  43. Mumin, A.H., Fleet, M.E., Chryssoulis, S.L. (1994) Gold Mineralization in As-Rich Mesothermal Gold Ores of the Bogosu-Prestea Mining District of the Ashanti Gold Belt, Ghana; Remobilization of "Invisible" Gold. Mineralium Deposita, v.29, pp.445–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Okolo, G.N., Neomagus, H.W.J.P., Everson, R.C., Roberts, M.J., Bunt, J.R., Sakurorvs, R., Mathews, J.P. (2015) Chemical-Structural Properties of South African Bituminous Coals: Insights from Wide Angle XRD-Carbon Fraction Analysis, ATR-FTIR, Solid State 13C NMR, HRTEM Techniques. Fuel, v.158, pp.779–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pal, D.C., Robert, B., Trumbull, Wiedenbeck, M. (2010) Chemical and Boron Isotope Composition of Tourmaline from the Jaduguda U(-Cu-Fe) Deposit, Singhbhum Shear Zone, India: Implications for the Sources and Evolution of Mineralizing Fluids. Chemical Geol., v.277, pp.245–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pal, T., Deb, M. (2013) Chert Associated in the Mineralized Zone of the Paleoproterozic Dariba-Rajpura-Bethumni Belt, Rajasthan: An Oxygen Isotope Study and its Implication. Curr. Sci., v.105(1).Google Scholar
  47. Palenik, C.S., Utsunomiya, S., Reich, M., Kesler, S.E., Wang, L., Ewing, R.C. (2004) "Invisible" Gold Revealed: Direct Imaging of Gold Nanoparticles in a Carlin-Type Deposit. American Mineral., v.89, pp.1359–1366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Prasad, S.R., Singh, U.P., Sharma, A.K., Das, S.K. (1994) Progress Report on Preliminary Search for Gold Base Metal and Other Noble Metal in Dalma Volcanic and Singhbhum Metasedimentary Rocks around Rudiya-Kantaldih In Parts of Singhbhum Districts, Bihar (73 J/1), Progress Report for the Field Season 1992–1993.Google Scholar
  49. Roy, A., Sarkar, A., Jeyakumar, S., Aggarwal,S.K., Ebihara, M. (2002) Mid-Proterozoic Plume Related Thermal Event in Eastern Indian Craton: Evidence from Trace Elements, REE Geochemistry and Sr-Nd Isotope Systematic Of Basic-Ultrabasic Intrusive from Dalma Volcanic Belt. Gondwana Res., v.5, pp.133–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Russell, J.D. (1987) Infrared Methods, In: A Handbook of Determinative Methods in Clay Mineralogy Wilson M.J. (Ed.), London, Blackie, pp. 133–173.Google Scholar
  51. Saha, I., Venkatesh, A.S. (2002) Invisible Gold within Sulfides from Archean Hutti-Maski Schist Belt, Southern India. Jour. Asian Earth Sci., v.20, pp.449–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sahoo, P.R. (2011) Metallogenetic Aspects of Gold Mieralization in and around Kundarkocha Area of the Singhbhum Orogenic Belt, Eastern India, Ph.D thesis (unpublished), ISM, Dhanbad-826004, pp.106–110.Google Scholar
  53. Sahoo, P.R., Venkatesh, A.S. (2014) "Indicator" Carbonaceous Phyllite/Graphitic Schist in the Archean Kundarkocha Gold Deposit, Singhbhum Orogenic Belt, Eastern India: Implication for Gold Mineralization vis-avis Organic Matter. Jour. Earth System Science, v.123(7), pp.1693–1703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Simon, G., Kesler, S.E., Chryssoulis, S. (1999) Geochemistry and textures of gold-bearing arsenian pyrite, Twin Creeks, Nevada: Implications for deposition of gold in Carlin-type deposits. Econ. Geol., v.94, pp.405–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Singh, S.P. (1997) Geochemistry of Acid Volcanics of the Dalma Group, Singhbhum, Eastern India. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.49, pp.437–441.Google Scholar
  56. Singh, S.P. (1998) Precambrian Stratigraphy of Bihar. In: Paliwal, B.S., (Ed.), The Indian Precambrian. Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publ., pp.376-408.Google Scholar
  57. Tarnocai, C.A., Hattori, K., Cabri, L.J. (1997) "Invisible" Gold in Sulfides from Campbell Mine, Red Lake Greenstone Belt, Ontario: Evidence for Mineralization During Peak Metamorphism. Canadian Mineral., v.35, pp.805–815.Google Scholar
  58. Vandenbroucke, M. (2003) Kerogen: from Types of Models of Chemical Structure. Oil & Gas Science and Technology, v.58(2), pp.243–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Walsh, M.M., Lowe,D.R. (1999) Modes of Accumulation of Carbonaceous Matter in Early Archaen: A Petrographic and Geochemical Study of the Carbonaceous Chert of Swaziland Supergroup. Geol. Soc. Amer., Spec. Paper 329.Google Scholar
  60. Wan, B., Zhang, L., Xiao, W. (2010) Geological and Geochemical Characteristics and Ore Genesis of Keketale VMS Pb-Zn Deposits, Southern Altai Metallogenic Belt, NW China. Ore Geology Rev., v.37,pp.114–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yang, S., Blum, N., Rahders, E., Zhang, Z. (1998) The Nature of Invisible Gold in Sulfides from the Xiangxi Au-Sb-W Ore Deposit in Northwestern Hunan, People's Republic of China. Canadian Mineral., v.36, pp.1361–1372.Google Scholar
  62. Yellur, D.D. (1977) Geochemical Clues In The Investigation of the Tectonic Environment of the Dalma Greenstone, Bihar, India. Chemical Geol., v.20, pp.345–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zhang, M., Reilly, S.Y.O., Wang, K.I., Honsky, J., Griffin, W.L. (2008) Flood Basalts and Metallogeny: The Lithospheric Mantle Connection. Earth Sci. Rev., v.86, pp.145–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Geological Society of India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied GeologyIndian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines)DhanbadIndia

Personalised recommendations