International Journal of Plastics Technology

, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 247–261 | Cite as

Prediction of equilibrium swelling ratio on synthesized polyacrylamide hydrogel using central composite design modeling

  • S. HamriEmail author
  • D. Lerari
  • M. Sehailia
  • B. Dali-Youcef
  • T. Bouchaour
  • K. Bachari
Research Article


Central composite design was successfully applied to predict the equilibrium swelling ratio (Y) of a crosslinked polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel. Samples were prepared by a facile, simple and efficient photochemical method, using Eosin Y/triethanolamine system as a photo-initiator and 1,6-hexanedioldiacrylate as a crosslinker. The mathematical relationship between the equilibrium swelling ratio and both experimental factors, i.e., temperature (X1) and degree of crosslinking (X2), was evaluated by a second-order quadratic model. The individual and interactive effects of these two parameters were described according to response surface modeling approach. This model allows to predefine the values of the equilibrium swelling ratio of the crosslinked PAM based on experimental conditions, i.e., temperature and degree of crosslinking within intervals [21–78 °C] and [0.75–9%], respectively. As a result, facilitating its application in areas such as drug delivery technology where controlling the swelling of a polymer allows further controlling of drug release. All predicted values were in full agreement with our experimental results [R2 99.85% and R2 (adj) of 99.69% for response Y].


Central composite design (CCD) Swelling ratio temperature crosslinking Eosin Y Polyacrylamide 



This work was supported by Center for Scientific and Technical Research in Physical and Chemical Analysis (CRAPC) Tipaza and Research on Macromolecules Laboratory (LRM), Faculty of Science—Tlemcen University, Algeria.


  1. 1.
    Ahmed EM (2015) Hydrogel: preparation, characterization, and applications: a review. J Adv Res 6:105–121. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shi Z, Gao Z, Ullah MW, Li S, Wang Q, Yang G (2016) Electroconductive natural polymer-based hydrogels. Biomaterials 111:40–54. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Primo GA, Igarzabal CIA, Pino GA, Ferrero JC, Rossa M (2016) Surface morphological modification of crosslinked hydrophilic co-polymers by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation. Appl Surf Sci 369:422–429. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zheng Y, Wang A (2015) Superadsorbent with three-dimensional networks: from bulk hydrogel to granular hydrogel. Eur Polym J 72:661–686. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Trimaille T, Pertici V, Gigmes D (2016) Recent advances in synthetic polymer based hydrogels for spinal cord repair. C R Chim 19:157–166. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sharma K, Kumar V, Chaudhary B, Kaith BS, Kalia S, Swart HC (2016) Application of biodegradable superabsorbent hydrogel composite based on Gum ghatti-co-poly(acrylic acid-aniline) for controlled drug delivery. Polym Degrad Stab 124:101–111. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kakkar P, Madhan B (2016) Fabrication of keratin–silica hydrogel for biomedical applications. Mater Sci Eng C 66:178–184. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Singh B, Sharma V (2017) Crosslinking of poly(vinylpyrrolidone)/acrylic acid with tragacanth gum for hydrogels formation for use in drug delivery applications. Carbohydr Polym 157:185–195. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gulsonbi M, Parthasarathy S, Bharat Raj K, Jaisankar V (2016) Green synthesis, characterization and drug delivery applications of a novel silver/carboxymethylcellulose–poly(acrylamide) hydrogel nanocomposite. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 134:421–426. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Silva D, Fernandes AC, Nunes TG, Colaço R, Serro AP (2015) The effect of albumin and cholesterol on the biotribological behavior of hydrogels for contact lenses. Acta Biomater 26:184–194. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lee YK, Lin YC, Tsai SH, Chen WL, Chen YM (2016) Therapeutic outcomes of combined topical autologous serum eye drops with silicone–hydrogel soft contact lenses in the treatment of corneal persistent epithelial defects: a preliminary study. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 39:425–430. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pimenta AFR, Ascenso J, Fernandes JCS, Colaço R, Serro AP, Saramago B (2016) Controlled drug release from hydrogels for contact lenses: drug partitioning and diffusion. Int J Pharm 515:467–475. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vulpe R, Popa M, Picton L, Balan V, Dulong V, Butnaru M, Verestiuc L (2016) Crosslinked hydrogels based on biological macromolecules with potential use in skin tissue engineering. Int J Biol Macromol 84:174–181. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Baei P, Jalili-Firoozinezhad S, Rajabi-Zeleti S, Tafazzoli-Shadpour M, Baharvand H, Aghdami N (2016) Electrically conductive gold nanoparticle-chitosan thermosensitive hydrogels for cardiac tissue engineering. Mater Sci Eng C 63:131–141. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Defu L, Youxin Y, Derong L, Xinying L, Changdao M (2016) Biological properties of dialdehyde carboxymethyl cellulose crosslinked gelatin-PEG composite hydrogel fibers for wound dressings. Carbohydr Polym 137:508–514. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yoon DS, Lee Y, Ryu HA, Jang Y, Lee KM, Choi Y, Choi WJ, Lee M, Park KM, Park KD, Lee JW (2016) Cell recruiting chemokine-loaded sprayable gelatin hydrogel dressings for diabetic wound healing. Acta Biomater 38:59–68. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sheng-Yuan K, Chung-Wei K, Hsin-Wei C, Chih-Wei H, Kuo-Chuan H (2016) An electrochromic device based on all-in-one polymer gel through in situ thermal polymerization. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 145:61–68. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ping Y, Suchun J, Jianghuai H, Xueping H, Ke Z, Gang Y (2016) Systematic study on highly efficient thermal synergistic polymerization effect between alicyclic imide moiety and phthalonitrile: scope, properties and mechanism. Polymer 102:266–280. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kasisomayajula S, Jadhav N, Gelling VJ (2016) Conductive polypyrrole and acrylate nanocomposite coatings: mechanistic study on simultaneous photopolymerization. Prog Org Coat 101:440–454. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hamri S, Bouchaour T (2016) pH-dependent swelling behaviour of interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels based on poly(hydroxybutyl methacrylate) and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate). Int J Plast Technol 20:279–293. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang H, Niu Q, Wang N, Nie J, Ma G (2015) Thermo-sensitive drug controlled release PLA core/PNIPAM shell fibers fabricated using a combination of electrospinning and UV photo-polymerization. Eur Polym J 71:440–450. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Xiao P, Zhang J, Dumur F, Tehfe MA, Morlet-Savary F, Graff B, Gigmes D, Fouassier JP, Lalevée J (2015) Visible light sensitive photoinitiating systems: recent progress in cationic and radical photopolymerization reactions under soft conditions. Prog Polym Sci 41:32–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Encinas MV, Rufs AM, Bertolotti SG, Previtali CM (2009) Xanthene dyes/amine as photoinitiators of radical polymerization: a comparative and photochemical study in aqueous medium. Polymer 50:2762–2767. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shaibani PM, Jiang K, Haghighat G, Hassanpourfard M, Etayash H, Naicker S, Thundat T (2016) The detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) with the pH sensitive hydrogel nanofiber-light addressable potentiometric sensor (NF-LAPS). Sens Actuator B Chem 226:176–183. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yang K, Wan S, Chen B, Gao W, Chen J, Liu M, He B, Wu H (2016) Dual pH and temperature responsive hydrogels based on β-cyclodextrin derivatives for atorvastatin delivery. Carbohydr Polym 136:300–306. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hanmin Z, Jianjun L, Hongtao C, Haijun L, Fenglin Y (2015) Forward osmosis using electric-responsive polymer hydrogels as draw agents: Influence of freezing–thawing cycles, voltage, feed solutions on process performance. Chem Eng J 259:814–819. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang Y, Dong A, Yuan Z, Chen D (2012) Fabrication and characterization of temperature-, pH- and magnetic-field-sensitive organic/inorganic hybrid poly (ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels. Colloids Surf A 415:68–76. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ghaedi M, Hajati S, Zare M, Zare M, Shajaripour Jaberi SY (2015) Experimental design for simultaneous analysis of malachite green and methylene blue; derivative spectrophotometry and principal component-artificial neural network. RSC Adv 5:38939–38947. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Roosta M, Ghaedi M, Asfaram A (2015) Simultaneous ultrasonic-assisted removal of malachite green and safranin O by copper nanowires loaded on activated carbon: central composite design optimization. RSC Adv 5:57021–57029. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Raheem A, Wan Azlina WAKG, Taufiq Yap YH, Danguah MK, Harun R (2015) Optimization of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris for syngas production using central composite design. RSC Adv 5:71805–71815. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hongtao X, Paxton J, Lim J, Yan L, Zimei W (2014) Development of a gradient high performance liquid chromatography assay for simultaneous analysis of hydrophilic gemcitabine and lipophilic curcumin using a central composite design and its application in liposome development. J Pharm Biomed Anal 98:371–378. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sugashini S, Begum KMMS (2013) Optimization using central composite design (CCD) for the biosorption of Cr(VI) ions by cross linked chitosan carbonized rice husk (CCACR). Clean Technol Environ Policy 15:293–302. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ghaedi M, Mazaheri H, Khodadoust S, Hajati S, Purkait MK (2015) Application of central composite design for simultaneous removal of methylene blue and Pb2+ ions by walnut wood activated carbon. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 135:479–490. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nazari A, Mirjalili M, Nasirizadeh N, Torabian S (2015) Optimization of nano TiO2 pretreatment on free acid dyeing of wool using central composite design. J Ind Eng Chem 21:1068–1076. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ruitao L, Guosheng Y (2015) Bayes factor and posterior probability: complementary statistical evidence to p-value. Contemp Clin Trials 44:33–35. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Feng Y, Aman U (2013) A nonparametric R2 test for the presence of relevant variables. J Stat Plan Inference 143:1527–1547. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ting L, Yuanlong L, Nigel G, Wenzheng Y, David R, Kening S (2017) Application of polyacrylamide flocculation with and without alum coagulation for mitigating ultrafiltration membrane fouling: role of floc structure and bacterial activity. Chem Eng J 307:41–48. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Central Institute of Plastics Engineering & Technology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre de Recherche Scientifique et Technique en Analyses Physico-chimiquesBou-IsmailAlgeria
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Macromolécules (LRM), Faculté des SciencesUniversité Abou Bekr BelkaïdTlemcenAlgeria
  3. 3.Laboratoire de Synthèse Macromoléculaire et Thio-organique Macromoléculaire, Faculté de ChimieUniversité des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari BoumedieneAlgiersAlgeria

Personalised recommendations