Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Conodont Biostratigraphy and Age of the Early Triassic Fish-Bearing-Nodule Levels from Nanjing and Jurong, Jiangsu Province, South China

Abstract

Fish-bearing nodules are found in Early Triassic marine strata in many regions, including East Greenland, East Spitsbergen, Northwest Madagascar, Canada, Angola, and South China. A new Olenekian (Early Triassic) conodont biostratigraphic study for stratum that contains fish-bearing nodule levels is conducted based on the Longtan (LT) Section of Nanjing City and the Qingshan (QS) Section of Jurong County, Jiangsu Province, South China. A total of 101 samples were collected at the two sections and three conodont zones were recognized: in ascending order, they are Scythogondolella (Sc.) milleri Zone, Novispathodus (Nv.) pingdingshanensis Zone, and Triassospathodus (Tr.) aff. homeri Zone. The Scythogondolella milleri Zone is globally recognized as the uppermost conodont zone of the Smithian and the base of the Novispathodus pingdingshanensis Zone was previously suggested as the marker of the Smithian-Spathian boundary in the Yangtze region. The fish-bearing-nodule levels of Nanjing and Jurong are within the conodont Scythogondolella milleri Zone, laterally correlated well with the upper part of the Novispathodus waageni Zone in Chaohu of Anhui Province that also contains fish-bearing-nodule levels. The conodont biostratigraphic correlation confirms the Early Triassic fish-bearing-nodule levels in the Lower Yangtze region are coeval, with an end-Smithian in age.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References Cited

  1. Bender, H., 1970. Zur Gliederung der Mediterranen Trias II. Die Conodontenchronologie der Mediterranen Trias. Annales Géologiques des Pays Helléniques, 19: 465–540 (in French)

  2. Chen, C. Z., Wang, Y. G., Wang, Z. H., et al., 1988. Triassic Biostratigraphy in Southern Jiangsu Province. In: Academy of Geological Sciences, Jiangsu Bureau of Petroleum, Prospecting and Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Academia Sinica Sinian-Triassic Biostratigraphy of the Lower Yangtze Peneplatform in Jiangsu Region. Nanjing University Press, Nanjing (in Chinese)

  3. Chen, M. J., 1996. Conodonts of Upper Permian-Lower Triassic of Zhenjiang Area. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 35: 430–441 (in Chinese with English Abstract)

  4. Chen, Y. L., Jiang, H. S., Lai, X. L., et al., 2015. Early Triassic Conodonts of Jiarong, Nanpanjiang Basin, Southern Guizhou Province, South China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 105: 104–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2015.03.014

  5. Chen, Y. L., Kolar-Jurkovšek, T., Jurkovšek, B., et al., 2016. Early Triassic Conodonts and Carbonate Carbon Isotope Record of the Idrija-Žiri Area, Slovenia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 444: 84–100. https://doi.org/10.13039/501100004329

  6. Chhabra, N. L., Kumar, S., 1992. Late Scythian through Early Carnian Conodont Assemblages and Their Biostratigraphic Significance from off Shore Carbonates of Northern Kumaun, Tethys Himalaya, India. Revue de Micropaleontologie, 35: 3–21

  7. Chhabra, N. L., Sahni, A., 1981. Late Lower Triassic and Early Triassic Conodont Faunas from Kashmir and Kumaun Sequences in Himalaya. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India, 25: 47–135

  8. Clark, D. L., 1959. Conodonts from the Triassic of Nevada and Utah. Journal of Paleontology, 33: 305–312

  9. Fang, Q., Zhang, H. J., Wang, X. L., et al., 2015. The Discovery of Early Triassic Conodont in the Huashixia Area of Maduo County, Qinghai Province, NW China and Its Significance. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica, 30: 423–425, 441 (in Chinese with English Abstract)

  10. Feng, Z. Z., Bao, Z. D., Li, S. W., 1997. Lithofaceies Paleogeography of Early and Middle Triassic of South China, Petroleum Industry Press, Beijing (in Chinese)

  11. Friedman, M., 2015. The Early Evolution of Ray-Finned Fishes. Palaeontology, 58(2): 213–228. https://doi.org/10.13039/501100004789

  12. Fuchs, G., Mostler, H., 1969. Mikrofaunen aus der Tibet-Zone, Himalaya. Verhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, 133–145

  13. Gaetani, M., Jacobshagen, V., Nicora, A., et al., 1992. The Early-Middle Triassic Boundary at Chios (Greece). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 98: 181–204

  14. Henderson, C., 1997. Uppermost Permian Conodonts and the Permian-Triassic Boundary in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, 45: 693–707

  15. Ji, W. T., Tong, J. N., Zhao, L. S., et al., 2011. Lower-Middle Triassic Conodont Biostratigraphy of the Qingyan Section, Guizhou Province, Southwest China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 308(1/2): 213–223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.08.020

  16. Jiang, W., Luo, Y. Q., Lu, T. Q., et al., 2000. The Lower Triassic Conodonts and its Significance to Oil and Gas Exploration in Sichuan Basin. Acta Micropalaeontology Sinica, 17: 99–109

  17. Jin, F., 2006. An Overview of Triassic fishes from China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 44: 28–42 (in Chinese with English Abstract)

  18. Jin, F., Wang, N. Z., Cai, Z. Q., 2003. A Revision of the Perleidid Fishes from the Lower Yangtze Region of South China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 7: 169–84 (in Chinese with English Abstract)

  19. Kogan, I., Romano, C., 2016. Redescription of Saurichthys Madagascariensis Piveteau, 1945 (Actinopterygii, Early Triassic), with Implications for the Early Saurichthyid Morphotype. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 36(4): e1151886. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.2016.1151886

  20. Komatsu, T., Takashima, R., Shigeta, Y., et al., 2016. Carbon Isotopic Excursions and Detailed Ammonoid and Conodont Biostratigraphies around Smithian-Spathian Boundary in the Bac Thuy Formation, Vietnam. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 454: 65–74. https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001691

  21. Kozur, H., 2003. Integrated Ammonoid, Conodont and Radiolarian Zonation of the Triassic and Some Remarks to Stage/Substage Subdivision and the Numeric Age of the Triassic Stages. Albertiana, 28: 57–74

  22. Krystyn, L., 2005. A Revised Lower Triassic Intercalibrated Ammonoid-Conodont Time Scale of the Eastern Tethys Realm Based on Himalayan Data. Albertiana, 33: 53–54

  23. Krystyn, L., Bhargava, O. N., Richoz, S., 2007. A Candidate GSSP for the Base of the Olenekian Stage: Mud at Pin Valley; District Lahul and Spiti, Himachal Pradesh (Western Himalaya), India. Albertiana, 35: 4–29

  24. Leu, M., Bucher, H., Goudemand, N., 2018. Clade-Dependent Size Response of Conodonts to Environmental Changes during the Late Smithian Extinction. Earth-Science Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2018.11.003

  25. Li, Q. G., 2009. A New Parasemionotid-Like Fish from the Lower Triassic of Jurong, Jiangsu Province, South China. Palaeontology, 52(2): 369–384. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4983.2009.00848.x

  26. Liang, D., Tong, J. N., Zhao, L. S., 2011. Lower Triassic Smithian-Spathian Boundary at West Pingdingshan Section in Chaohu, Anhui Province. Science China Earth Sciences, 54(3): 372–379. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-010-4145-2

  27. Liang, L., Tong, J. N., Song, H. J., et al., 2016. Lower-Middle Triassic Conodont Biostratigraphy of the Mingtang Section, Nanpanjiang Basin, South China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 459: 381–393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.07.027

  28. Liu, G. B., Feng, H. Z., Wang, J. X., et al., 2002. Early Triassic fishes from Jurong, Jiangsu. Acta Paleontologica Sinica, 41: 27–52 (in Chinese with English Abstract)

  29. Marramà, G., Lombardo, C., Tintori, A., Carnevale, G., 2017. Redescription of ‘Perleidus’ (Osteichthyes, Actinopterygii) from the Early Triassic of northwestern Madagascar. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 123(2): 219–242

  30. Mosher, L. C., 1973. Triassic Conodonts from British Columbia and the Northern Arctic Islands. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Canada, 222: 141–192

  31. Müller, K. J., 1956. Triassic Conodonts from Nevada. Journal of Paleontology, 30: 818–830

  32. Nakrem, H. A., Orchard, M. J., Weitschat, W., et al., 2008. Triassic Conodonts from Svalbard and Their Boreal Correlations. Polar Research, 27(3): 523–539. https://doi.org/10.3402/polar.v27i3.6190

  33. Nogami, Y., 1968. Trias-Conodonten von Timor, Malaysien und Japan. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, 34: 115–136

  34. Orchard, M. J., 1995. Taxonomy and Correlation of Lower Triassic (Spathian) Segminate Conodonts from Oman and Revision of Some Species of Neospathodus. Journal of Paleontology, 69(1): 110–122. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022336000026962

  35. Orchard, M. J., 2008. Lower Triassic Conodonts from the Canadian Arctic, their Intercalibration with Ammonoid-Based Stages and a Comparison with other North American Olenekian Faunas. Polar Research, 27(3): 393–412.https://doi.org/10.3402/polar.v27i3.6187

  36. Orchard, M. J., Tozer, E. T., 1997. Triassic Conodont Biochronology, Its Calibration with the Ammonoid Standard, and a Biostratigraphic Summary for the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology, 45(4): 675–692

  37. Orchard, M. J., Zonneveld, J. P., et al., 2009. The Lower Triassic Sulphur Mountain Formation in the Wapiti Lake Area: Lithostratigraphy, Conodont Biostratigraphy, and a New Biozonation for the Lower Olenekian (Smithian) Earth Science Sector (ESS) Contribution 20080714. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 46(10): 757–790. https://doi.org/10.1139/e09-051

  38. Orchard, M. J., Lehrmann, D. J., Wei, J., et al., 2007a. Conodont from the Olenekian-Anisian Boundary Beds, Guandao, Guizhou Province, China. In: Lucas, S. G., Spielmann, J. A. eds., The Global Triassic. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 41: 347–354

  39. Orchard, M. J., Gradinaru, E., Nicora, A., 2007b. A Summary of the Conodont Succession around the Olenekian-Anisian Boundary at Desli Caira, North Dobrogea, Romania. In: Lucas, S. G., Spielmann, J. A., eds., The Global Triassic. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 41: 341–346

  40. Qian, M. P., Zhu, S. P., Zhao, F. M., et al., 1997. Discovery of Early Triassic Fish Fossils and Its Significances in Jurong, Jiangsu Province. Jiangsu Geology, 21: 65–71 (in Chinese with English Abstract)

  41. Romano, C., Koot, M. B., Kogan, I., et al., 2014. Permian-Triassic Osteichthyes (Bony Fishes): Diversity Dynamics and Body Size Evolution. Biological Reviews, 91(1): 106–147. https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001711

  42. Scheyer, T. M., Romano, C., Jenks, J., et al., 2014. Early Triassic Marine Biotic Recovery: The Predators’ Perspective. PLoS ONE, 9(3): e88987. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088987

  43. Solien, M. A., 1979. Conodont Biostratigraphy of the Lower Triassic Thaynes Formation, Utah. Journal of Paleontology, 53: 276–306

  44. Su, D. Z., 1981. A New Species of Perleidus from Anhui. Vertebrata PalAsiatica, 19(2): 107–112 (in Chinese with English Abstract)

  45. Sweet, W. C., 1970. Uppermost Permian and Lower Triassic Conodonts of the Salt Range and Trans-Indus Ranges, West Pakistan. In: Kummel, B., Teichert, C., eds., Stratigraphic boundarty problems: Permian and Triassic of West Pakistan. University of Kansas, Department of Geology, Special Publication, 4: 207–275

  46. Sweet, W. C., Mosher, L. C., Clark, D. L., 1971. Conodont Biostratigraphy of the Triassic. Geological Society of America Memoir, 127: 441–465

  47. Tian, C. R., 1982. Triassic Conodonts in the Tulong Section from Nyalam County, Xizang (Tibet), China. Geological Review, 3: 153–165 (in Chinese with English Abstract)

  48. Tintori, A., Hitij, T., Jiang, D. Y., et al., 2014. Triassic Actinopterygian Fishes: The Recovery after the End-Permian Crisis. Integrative Zoology, 9(4): 394–411. https://doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12077

  49. Tong, J. N., Zakharov, Y. D., Wu, S. B., 2004. Early Triassic Ammonoid Succession in Chaohu, Anhui Provinve. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 43: 192–204 (in Chinese with English Abstract)

  50. Tong, J. N., Zhou, X. G., Erwin, D. H., et al., 2006. Fossil fishes from the Lower Triassic of Majiashan, Chaohu, Anhui Province, China. Journal of Paleontology, 80(1): 146–161. https://doi.org/10.1666/0022-3360(2006)080[0146:ffftlt]2.0.co;2

  51. Wang, H. M., Wang, X. L., Li, R. X., et al., 2005. Triassic Conodont Succession and Stage Subdivision of the Guandao Section, Bianyang, Luodian, Guizhou. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 44(4): 611–626 (in Chinese with English Abstract)

  52. Wang, H. Z., Shi, X. Y., Wang, X. L., et al., 2000. Research on the Sequence Stratigraphy of China. Guangdong Science and Technology Press. Guangzhou, 457 (in Chinese with English Abstract)

  53. Wang, Z. H., Cao, Y. Y., 1981. Early Triassic Conodonts from Lichuan, Western Hubei. Acta Micropalaeontology Sinica, 20: 363–375 (in Chinese with English Abstract)

  54. Wang, Z. H., Zhong, D., 1994. Triassic Conodonts from Different Facies in Eastern Yunnan, Western Guizhou and Northern Guangxi. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica, 11: 379–412 (in Chinese with English Abstract)

  55. Wu, G. C., Yao, J. X., Ji, Z. S., 2007. Triassic Conodont Biostratigraphy in the Coqen Area, Western Gangdise, Tibet, China. Geological Bulletin of China, 26: 938–946 (in Chinese with English Abstract)

  56. Yan, C. B., Wang, L. N., Jiang, H. S., 2013. Uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic Conodonts at Bianyang Section, Guizhou Province, South China. Palaios, 28(8): 509–522. https://doi.org/10.2110/palo.2012.p12-077r

  57. Yang, S. R., Chu, Q. C., 1992. Study on Conodonts from Triassic Yongningzhen Formation, Southwestern Guizhou Province with a Discussion on Lower/Middle Triassic Boundary. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, 28: 723–732 (in Chinese with English Abstract)

  58. Zhao, L. S., Chen, Y. L., Chen, Z. Q., et al., 2013. Uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic Conodont Zonation from Three Gorges Area, South China. Palaios, 28(8): 523–540. https://doi.org/10.2110/palo.2012.p12-107r

  59. Zhao, L. S., Orchard, M. J., 2007. Lower Triassic Conodont Sequence in Chaohu, Anhui Province, China and Its Global Correlation. Paleogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 252: 24–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.11.032

  60. Zhao, L. S., Orchard, M. J., Tong, J. N., et al., 2007. Lower Triassic Conodont Sequence in Chaohu, Anhui Province, China and Its Global Correlation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 252(1/2): 24–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.11.032

  61. Zhao, L. S., Tong, J. N., Sun, Z. M., et al., 2008. A Detailed Lower Triassic Conodont Biostratigraphy and Its Implications for the GSSP Candidate of the Induan-Olenekian Boundary in Chaohu, Anhui Province. Progress in Natural Science, 18(1): 79–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnsc.2007.07.001

  62. Zhang, L., Orchard, M. J., Brayard, A., et al., 2019. The Smithian/Spathian Boundary (Late Early Triassic): A Review of Ammonoid, Conodont, and Carbon-Isotopic Criteria. Earth-Science Reviews. https://doi.org/10.13039/501100004701

  63. Zuo, J. X., Tong, J. N., Qiu, H. O., et al., 2006. Carbon Isotope Composition of the Lower Triassic Marine Carbonates, Lower Yangtze Region, South China. Science in China Series D: Earth Science, 49(3): 225–241. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-006-0225-8

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Ryosuke Motani (University of California, Davis) and Andera Tintori (Università degli Studi di Milano) for their constructive suggestions and language corrections on an early version of the manuscript. Special thanks go to Michael Orchard (Geological Survey of Canada) for his helpful comments on conodont taxonomy. Hao Lu, Wenbin Lin, Xin Yu and Peigang Ni (students of Peking University) participated the field work. Martyn Golding (Geological Survey of Canada) and an anonymous reviewer provided many constructive comments, greatly improving the quality of the paper. Research funded was by the Stratefic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Science (No. XDA14010404), the National Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41572008, U1663201, 41372016, 40920124002, 1402014), the Ministry of Science and Technology (No. 2016YFC0503301), the State Key Laboratory of Palaeobiology and Stratigraphy (Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS) (Nos. 123107, 143108, 173123), and the China Geological Survey (No. 121201102000150012-09). The final publication is available at Springer via https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-019-1232-y.

Author information

Correspondence to Zuoyu Sun.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liu, S., Sun, Z., Ji, C. et al. Conodont Biostratigraphy and Age of the Early Triassic Fish-Bearing-Nodule Levels from Nanjing and Jurong, Jiangsu Province, South China. J. Earth Sci. 31, 9–22 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-019-1232-y

Download citation

Key words

  • Early Triassic
  • conodont
  • fish-bearing-nodule
  • Lower Yangtze region
  • South China