Seawater Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen over the Past 500 Million Years
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Ocean temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations are critical factors that control ocean productivity, carbon and nutrient cycles, and marine habitat. However, the evolution of these two factors in the geologic past are still unclear. Here, we use a new oxygen isotope database to establish the sea surface temperature (SST) curve in the past 500 million years. The database is composed of 22 796 oxygen isotope values of phosphatic and calcareous fossils. The result shows two prolonged cooling events happened in the Late Paleozoic and Late Cenozoic, coinciding with two major ice ages indicated by continental glaciation data, and seven global warming events that happened in the Late Cambrian, Silurian-Devonian transition, Late Devonian, Early Triassic, Toarcian, Late Cretaceous, and Paleocene-Eocene transition. The SSTs during these warming periods are about 5–30 °C higher than the present-day level. Oxygen contents of shallow seawater are calculated from temperature, salinity, and atmospheric oxygen. The results show that major dissolved oxygen valleys of surface seawater coincide with global warming events and ocean anoxic events. We propose that the combined effect of temperature and dissolved oxygen account for the long-term evolution of global oceanic redox state during the Phanerozoic.
Key Wordssea surface temperature global warming ocean anoxic event dissolved oxygen Phanerozoic
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We thank Zhipu Qiu for collecting data, Ján Veizer for comments on earlier drafts, and Dana L. Royer for providing atmospheric oxygen and carbon dioxide data. This study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41821001, 41622207, 41530104, 41661134047), the State Key R&D Project of China (No. 2016YFA0601100), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. XDB26000000), a Marie Curie Fellowship (No. H2020-MSCA-IF-2015-701652), and the Natural Environment Research Council’s Eco-PT Project (No. NE/P01377224/1), which is a part of the Biosphere Evolution, Transitions and Resilience Program (BETR). The final publication is available at Springer via https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-018-1002-2.
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