Advertisement

Journal of Earth Science

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 95–108 | Cite as

Genesis of Xinzhai Sandstone-Type Copper Deposit in Northern Laos: Geological and Geochemical Evidences

  • Jianguo Huang
  • Tao RenEmail author
  • Haijun Zou
Article
  • 4 Downloads

Abstract

Xinzhai sandstone-type copper deposit located in northern Laos lies in the Jiangcheng-Phongsaly-Phrae Mesozoic basin (JPMB), which is regarded as southern extension of the Lanping-Simao Mesozoic basin in China. The copper deposit belt is bounded by the Ailaoshan-Heishui River fault and the Dian Bien Phu-Luang Prabang fault at the east and Lancang River- Bannankan faults at the west. Two types of orebodies are identified in the Xinzhai area based on geological investigation. One is lamellar copper orebody hosted by the fine lithic feldspar sandstones and feldspar lithic sandstones; another is vein-type orebody. The sulfur isotopic compositions of the chalcopyrite and tetrahedrite are from -11.6‰ to -1.8‰, indicating that sulfur is derived from bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR). δH2O values of fluid inclusions in ore-bearing quartz samples are from -99‰ to -78‰. The calculated \(\delta^{18}\rm{O}_{H_{2}O}\) values of ore-forming fluid vary from -2.3‰ to 0.4‰ using the quartz-water fractionation equations and the mineralization temperature. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions show that the ore-forming fluid was derived from basin fluid. Rock-mineral identifications show that both of the mineral grain maturity and the structural maturity are high in the Jurassic Huakaizuo Formation, reflecting a far-source accumulation and lake facies sedimentatary environment. Based on tectonic determination diagram of the Al2O3/SiO2-TFe+MgO, the sandstone samples collected from the Huakaizuo Formation were plotted in the passive continental margin. The collision of the Indian and Eurasian blocks during the Cenozoic formed large-scale strike-slips and thrust nappe structures in margin of the basin. With the tectonic movement, Cu-rich basin fluid from the basement of basin migrated upward along the contemporaneous fault and into the high porosity strata. At the same time, in organic matter-riched condition, bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) has been triggered, forming a large number of S2- ions, and then precipitation of sulfide started. This mechanism describes the process of copper mineral deposition in the Xinzhai deposit.

Key words

Laos sandstone-type copper deposit geology geochemistry genesis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the editors and the anonymous reviewers for their useful comments. The manuscript benefited from thoughtful comments by Prof. Xiaoyong Yang of University of Science and Technology of China and Prof. Runsheng Han of Kunming University of Science and Technology. This study was jointly supported by the project of the National Science Foundation of China (No. 41663006) and the innovation team of KMUST ore-forming dynamics and prediction of concealed deposits (2008). The final publication is available at Springer via  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-018-0861-x.

References Cited

  1. Barton, P. B., 1967. Possible Role of Organic Matter in the Precipitation of the Mississippi Valley Ores. In: Brown, J. S., ed., Genesis of Stratiform Lead-Zinc-Barite Deposits. Economic Geology Monograph, 3: 371–378Google Scholar
  2. Beales, F. W., Jackson, S. A., 1966. Precipitation of Lead-Zinc Ores in Carbonate Reservoirs as Illustrated by Pine Point Ore Field, Canada. Transactions Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 75: 278–285Google Scholar
  3. Bhatia, M. R., 1983. Plate Tectonics and Geochemical Composition of Sandstones. Journal of geology, 91: 611–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen, G. W., Xia, B., Wu, Y. Z., et al., 2000. The Metallogenic Mechanism of the Sandstone-Type Copper Deposits in the Chuxiong Basin, Yunnan Province. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 43(S1): 262–272.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02911951 Google Scholar
  5. Cheng, Y., Song, Y. C., Hou, Z. Q., et al., 2015. Fluid Inclusions and Stable Isotopes Study of Maocaoping Vein Cu Deposit in Lanping Basin, Western Yunnan. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 31(11): 3363–3379 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  6. Cui, Y. L., Yang, C., 1998. A Discussion on the Geological Features and Metallogenetic Factors of Xinshan Polymetallic Deposit, Mengla. Yunnan Geology, 17(2): 207–215 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  7. Deng, J., Wang, C. M., Bagas, L., et al., 2017. Insights into Ore Genesis of the Jinding Zn-Pb Deposit, Yunnan Province, China: Evidence from Zn and in-situ S Isotopes. Ore Geology Reviews, 90: 943–957.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2016.10.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Du, W., Jiang, Z. X., Li, Q., et al., 2016. Sedimentary Characterization of the Upper Paleozoic Coal-Bearing Tight Sand Strata, Daniudi Gas Field, Ordos Basin, China. Journal of Earth Science, 27(5): 823–834.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-016-0705-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fan, C. J., Zhang, Y. F., 1994. The Structure and Tectonics of Western Yunnan. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, 9(4): 355–361.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0743-9547(94)90047-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Feng, C., Shi, Y. J., Li, J. H., et al., 2017. A New Empirical Method for Constructing Capillary Pressure Curves from Conventional Logs in Low-Permeability Sandstones. Journal of Earth Science, 28(3): 516–522.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-016-0913-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gao, X., Fang, Q. F., Yao, W., et al., 2013. Genesis of the Mengyejing Potash Deposit in Lanping-Simao Basin, Yunnan: Indication from the Components of the Deposit. Acta Geoscientica Sinica, 34(5): 529–536 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  12. Gao, Y. B., Xue, C. J., Zeng, R., 2008. Geochemistry of Organic Matters in the Jinding Zinc-Lead Deposit, Lanping Basin, Northwestern Yunnan Province. Geochimica, 37(3): 223–232 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  13. Gu, X. X., Zhang, Y. M., Dong, S. Y., et al., 2007. Basin Fluid Mineralization during Multistage Evolution of the Lanping Sedimentary Basin, Southwestern China. Acta Geologica Sinica: English Edition, 81(6): 984–995.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-6724.2007.tb01020.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Guo, J. X., Li, Q., Wang, W. W., et al., 2017. Diagenetic Sequence and Genetic Mechanism of Silurian Tight Sandstone Reservoirs in the Eastern Tarim Basin, Northwest China. Journal of Earth Science, 28(6): 1109–1125.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-016-0939-2 Google Scholar
  15. He, L. Q., Chen, K. X., Wei, J. Q., et al., 2005. Geological and Geochemical Characteristics and Genesis of Ore Deposits in Eastern Ore Belt of Baiyangping Area, Yunnan Province. Mineral Deposits, 24(1): 61–70 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  16. He, L. Q., Song, Y. C., Chen, K. X., et al., 2009. Thrust-Controlled, Sediment-Hosted, Himalayan Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag Deposits in the Lanping Foreland Fold Belt, Eastern Margin of Tibetan Plateau. Ore Geology Reviews, 36(1/2/3): 106–132.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2008.11.001 Google Scholar
  17. Hou, Z. Q., Song, Y. C., Li, Z., et al., 2008a. Thrust-conTrolled, Sediments-Hosted Pb-Zn-Ag-Cu Deposits in Eastern and Northern Margins of Tibetan Orogenic Belt: Geological Features and Tectonic Model. Mineral Deposits, 27(2): 123–144 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  18. Hou, Z. Q., Wang, E. Q., Mo, X. X., et al., 2008b. Collisional Orogeny and Mineralization of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. 126 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  19. Hu, H. Y., Zeng, Z. P., Liu, J. Z., 2015. Key Elements Controlling Oil Accumulation within the Tight Sandstones. Journal of Earth Science, 26(3): 328–342.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-015-0550-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hu, R. Z., Su, W. C., Qi, H. W., et al., 2000. Geochemistry, Occurrence and Mineralization of Germanium. Bulletin of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemisty, 19(4): 215–217 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  21. Hu, Y. Z., W, P., Ran, C. Y., 2013. A Discussion on the Genesis of Sandstone-Hosted Copper Deposits Occuring in the Contact Zone between Purple and Gray Sandstone, Metallic Sulphide Zoning and the Evolution of Metallization in Central Yunnan. Geological Review, 59(5): 893–899 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  22. Huang, C. Y., Zhang, J. C., Wang, H., et al., 2015. Lacustrine Shale Deposition and Variable Tectonic Accommodation in the Rift Basins of the Bohai Bay Basin in Eastern China. Journal of Earth Science, 26(5): 700–711.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-015-0602-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jiang, S. Y., Woodhead J., Yu, J. M., et al., 2001. A Preliminary Determination of Cu Isotopic Composition of Jinman Hydrothermal Vein Type Copper Deposit in Yunnan. Chinese Science Bulletin, 46(17): 1468–1471 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. Li, F., Huang, D. Y., Pu, W. M., 1995. Metallogenic Law of Red-Bed Copper Deposits of the Lanping-Simao Basin, Yunnan, China. Geotectonica et Metallogenia, 19(4): 322–335 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  25. Li, F., Pu, W. M., Li, L., 1997. The Material Origin of the Regional Metallogenesis of Cu Deposits in Red Beds of West Yunnan. Yunnan Geology, 16(3): 233–244 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  26. Li, F. X., Zhao, Y. L., Wang, Z. Z., et al., 1995. Geology and Mining Economy in Southeast Asia. Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming. 1–323 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  27. Li, X. M., Song, Y. G., 2006. Cenozoic Evolution of Tectono-Fluid and Metallogenic Process in Lanping Basin, Western Yunnan Province, Southwest China: Constraints from Apatite Fission Track Data. Chinese Journal of Geochemistry, 25(4): 396–401.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11631-006-0395-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liu, J. J., Li, C. Y., Pan, J. Y., et al., 2000. Isotopic Geochemistry of Copper Deposits in Sandstone and Shale of Lanping-Simao Basin, Western Yunnan. Mineral Deposits, 19(3): 223–234 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  29. Liu, J. J., Li, C. Y., Zhang, Q., et al., 2001. Wood Textures in Jinman Copper Deposit in Western Yunnan and Their Genetic Implications. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 44(6): 545–554.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02876214 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Liu, J. J., Li, Z. M., Zhang, Q., et al., 2003. 40Ar-39Ar Fast Neutron Activation Age of Quartz from the Jinman Copper Mine, West Yunnan. Chinese Journal of Geology, 38(4): 529–531 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  31. Liu, X. J., Liu, W., 2013. Re-Os Dating of the Suoerkuduke Cu (Mo) Deposit, Fuyun County, Xinjiang, and Its Geodynamic Implications. Journal of Earth Science, 24(2): 188–202.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-013-0322-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Liu, Y. Y., Qi, L., Gao, J. F., et al., 2015. Re-Os Dating of Galena and Sphalerite from Lead-Zinc Sulfide Deposits in Yunnan Province, SW China. Journal of Earth Science, 26(3): 343–351.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-015-0539-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lü, D. W., Li, Z. X., Chen, J. T., et al., 2015. Depositional Environments of the Upper Permian Quartzose Sandstone (Shandong Province, North China): Insight from Trace Element Geochemistry. Journal of Earth Science, 26(2): 273–284.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-015-0530-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Meng, L. Y., 1997. Metallogenic Model of the Copper Deposit. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 40(3): 225–231.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02877529 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Miao, W. L., Ma, H. Z., Zhang, X. Y., et al., 2013. Clay Mineral Characteristics of Salt Sequence in Drill Hole SHK4 of the Mengyejing Potassium Deposit of Jiangcheng, Lanping-Simao Basin, Yunnan Province and Their Sylvite-Forming Significance. Acta Geoscientica Sinica, 34(5): 537–546 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  36. Qi, L., Hu, J., Gregoire, D. C., 2000. Determination of Trace Elements in Granites by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Talanta, 51(3): 507–513.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0039-9140(99)00318-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Qi, Y. G., Wang, M., Zheng, W., et al., 2012. Calcite Cements in Burrows and Their Influence on Reservoir Property of the Donghe Sandstone, Tarim Basin, China. Journal of Earth Science, 23(2): 129–141.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-012-0238-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Qiu, L. W., Yang, S. C., Qu, C. S., et al., 2017. A Comprehensive Porosity Prediction Model for the Upper Paleozoic Tight Sandstone Reservoir in the Daniudi Gas Field, Ordos Basin. Journal of Earth Science, 28(6): 1086–1096.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-016-0935-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Roger, F., Leloup, P. H., Jolivet, M., et al., 2000. Long and Complex Thermal History of the Song Chay Metamorphic Dome (Northern Vietnam) by Multi-System Geochronology. Tectonophysics, 321(4): 449–466.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0040-1951(00)00085-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shi, H. Y., Ma, H. Z., Miao, W. L., et al., 2014. Characteristics and Geological Significances of Rare Earth and Trace Elements from Upper Cretaceous Mengyejing Formation of Simao Basin in Jiangcheng County, Yunnan Province. Geochimica, 43(4): 415–427 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  41. Sun, S. S., McDonough, W. F., 1989. Chemical and Isotopic Systematics of Oceanic Basalts: Implications for Mantle Composition and Processes. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 42(1): 313–345.  https://doi.org/10.1144/gsl.sp.1989.042.01.19 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tang, Y. Y., Bi, X. W., Wu, L. Y., et al., 2013. Re-Os Isotopic Dating of Pyrite from Jinding Zn-Pb Ore Deposit and Its Geological Significance. Acta Mieralogica Sinica, 33(3): 287–294 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  43. Tang, Y. Y., Bi, X. W., Fayek, M., et al., 2014. Microscale Sulfur Isotopic Compositions of Sulfide Minerals from the Jinding Zn-Pb Deposit, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Gondwana Research, 26(2): 594–607.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2013.07.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wang, A. J., Cao, D. H., Gao, L., et al., 2009. A Probe into the Genesis of Jinding Super-Large Lead-Zinc Ore Deposit. Acta Geologica Sinica, 83(1): 43–54 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  45. Wang, F., He, M. Y., 2003. Geochemistry of the Trace Elements from the Baiyangping Silver Poly-Metallic Deposit in Lanping, Yunnan. Sedimentary Geology and Tethyan Geology, 23(4): 103–107 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  46. Wang, F., 2004. Formation of Geochemical Mechanism of Baiyangping Silver Polymetallic Deposit, Yunnan: [Dissertation]. Chengdu University of Technology, Chendu. 1–77 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  47. Wang, F. D., Zhu, X. Q., Wang, Z. G., 2011. Madouzi-Type (Nodular) Sedimentary Copper Deposit Associated with the Emeishan Basalt. Science China Earth Sciences, 54(12): 1880–1891.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-011-4331-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wang, G. Z., Hu, R. Z., Su, W. C., et al., 2002. Basin Fluid Flow and Mineralization in Youjiang Basin, Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi Provinces. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 32: 78–86Google Scholar
  49. Wang, H., Chen, S., Huang, C. Y., et al., 2017. Architecture of Sandstone Bodies of Paleogene Shahejie Formation in Northern Qikou Sag, Northeast China. Journal of Earth Science, 28(6): 1078–1085.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-016-0937-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wang, X. H., Hou, Z. Q., Song, Y. C., et al., 2011. Baiyangping Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag Polymetallic Deposit in Lanping Basin: Metallogenic Chronology and Regional Mineralization. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 27(9): 2625–2634 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  51. Wei, J. Q., 2003. S-Pb Isotopic Geochemistry of Copper Multi-Metal Deposits in Hexi, Yunnan Province. Geology and Mineral Resources of South China, 3: 36–39 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  52. Wen, C. Q., Cai, J. M., Liu, W. Z., et al., 1995. Geochemical Characteristics of Fluid Inclusions in the Jinding Lead-Zinc Deposit, Yunnan, China. Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology, 15(4): 78–84 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  53. Wu, N. P., Jiang, S. Y., Liao, Q. L., et al., 2003. Lead and Sulfur Isotope Geochemistry and the Ore Sources of Vein-Type Copper Deposits in Lanping-Simao Basin, Yunnan Province. Acta Petrologica sinica, 19(4): 799–807 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  54. Wu, W. S., Xiao, L. Z., Zhang, L. H., 2008. Neutron and Density Logging Responses to Gas Reservoir for Well-Balanced and Under-Balanced Logging: Gas Reservoirs of Sandstone in a Western China Field. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 51(S2): 201–206.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-008-6003-z Google Scholar
  55. Xu, Q. D., Li, J, W., 2003. Migration of Ore-Forming Fluids and Its Relation to Zoning of Mineralization in Northern Lanping Cu-Polymetallic Metallogenic Area, Yunnan Province: Evidence from Fluid Inclusions and Stable Isotopes. Mineral Deposits, 22(4): 365–376 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  56. Xu, Q. D., Zhou, L., 2004. Ore-Forming Fluid Migration in Relation to Mineralization Zoning in Cu-Polymetallic Mineralization District of Northern Lanping, Yunnan: Evidence from Lead Isotope and Mineral Chemistry of Ores. Mineral Deposits, 23(4): 452–463 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  57. Xu, X. C., Xie, Q. Q., Lu, S. M., et al., 2005. Fluid Inclusion Characteristics of Copper Deposits on the Western Border of Lanping Basin, Yunnan Province. Acta Mineralogica Sinica, 25 (2): 170–176 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  58. Xue, C. J., Chen, Y. C., Yang, J. M., et al., 2002. Analysis of Ore-Forming Background and Tectonic System of Lanping Basin, Western Yunnan Province. Mineral Deposits, 21(1): 36–44 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  59. Xue, C. J., Chen, Y. C., Wang, D. H., et al., 2003. Geology and Isotopic Composition of Helium, Neon, Xenon and Metallogenic Age of the Jinding and Baiyangping Ore Deposits, Northwest Yunnan, China. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 46(8): 789–800.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02879523 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Xue, C. J., Zeng, R., Liu, S. W., et al., 2007. Geologic, Fluid Inclusion and Isotopic Characteristics of the Jinding Zn-Pb Deposit, Western Yunnan, South China: A Review. Ore Geology Reviews, 31(1/2/3/4): 337–359.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2005.04.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Xue, C. J., Chi, G. X., Fayek, M., 2015. Micro-Textures and in situ Sulfur Isotopic Analysis of Spheroidal and Zonal Sulfides in the Giant Jinding Zn-Pb Deposit, Yunnan, China: Implications for Biogenic Processes. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 103: 288–304.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2014.07.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Xue, W., Xue, C. J., Chi, G. X., et al., 2010. Study on the Fluid Inclusions of Baiyangping Poly-Metallic Deposit in Lanping Basin, Northwestern Yunnan, China. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 26(6): 1773–1784 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  63. Yan, W., 1997. Geochemical Characteristics and Their Hydrothermal Sedimentary Genesis of a New Type of Copper Deposit. Geochimica, 26(1): 54–63 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  64. Yang, J. X., Yin, H. W., Zhang, Z., et al., 2013. Geologic Settings of the Potassium Formations in the Lanping-Simao Basin, Yunnan Province. Geotectonica et Metallogenia, 37(4): 633–640 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  65. Yin, H. H., Fan, W. M., Ling, G., 1990. Deep Processes and Mantle-Crust Compound Mineralization in the Evolution of the Lanping-Simao Mesozoic-Cenozoic Diwa Basin in Western Yunnan, China. Geotectonica et Metallogenia, 14(2): 113–124 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  66. Yuan, T., Wu, C. H., Yi, H. S., et al., 2015. Sedimentology Characteristics of Eolian Sandstone in the Lower Cretaceous Mangang Formation in the Jinggu Area, Simao Basin, Yunnan and the Paleoclimatic Significance. Acta Geologica Sinica, 89(11): 2062–2074 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  67. Zeng, L. B., Gao, C. Y., Qi, J. F., et al., 2008. The Distribution Rule and Seepage Effect of the Fractures in the Ultra-Low Permeability Sandstone Reservoir in East Gansu Province, Ordos Basin. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 51(S2): 44–52.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-008-6015-8 Google Scholar
  68. Zhang, F., Tang, J. X., Chen, H. D., et al., 2010. The Evolution and the Metallogenic Characteristic of Lanping Basin. Geology and Exploration, 46(1): 85–92 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  69. Zhang, J. R., Wen, H. J., Qiu, Y. Z., et al., 2015. Characteristics of Ore-Forming Fluids of Cu-Ag (±Pb-Zn) Polymetallic Deposits in Western Lanping Basin, Yunan Province. Mineral Deposits, 34(3): 497–520 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  70. Zhang, N., He, M. C., Zhang, B., et al., 2016. Pore Structure Characteristics and Permeability of Deep Sedimentary Rocks Determined by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry. Journal of Earth Science, 27(4): 670–676.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-016-0662-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zhao, H. B., 2006. Study on the Characteristics and Metallogenic Conditions of Copper Polymetallic Deposits in Middle-Northern Lanping Basin, Western Yunnan: [Dissertation]. China University of Geosciences, Beijing. 1–123 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  72. Zheng, H. F., Guo, F. S., Zhu, Z. J., et al., 2012. Carbon, Oxygen and Sulfur Isotope Geochemistry Characteristics of the Jinding Lead-Zinc Deposit in Yunnan and Their Geological Significance. Resource Survey and Environment, 33(4): 218–224 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  73. Zheng, M. P., Zhang, Z., Yin, H. W., et al., 2014. A New Viewpoint Concerning the Formation of the Mengyejing Potash Deposit in Jiangcheng, Yunnan. Acta Geoscientica Sinica, 35(1): 11–24 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  74. Zhu, R. K., Zou, C. N., Zhang, N., et al., 2008. Diagenetic Fluids Evolution and Genetic Mechanism of Tight Sandstone Gas Reservoirs in Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in Sichuan Basin, China. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 51(9): 1340–1353.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-008-0102-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Zhu, Y. Z., Wu, J., H, J. J., et al., 2009. An Introduction to Geological and Mineral Resources in Laos. Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming. 1–200 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  76. Zou, Z. C., Hu, R. Z., Bi, X. W., et al., 2014. Trace Element Geochemistry of the Liziping Pb-Zn Deposit, the Lanping Basin, Northwest Yunnan Province, China. Geochimica, 41(5): 482–496 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© China University of Geosciences and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Land Resources EngineeringKunming University of Science and TechnologyKunmingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Ore Deposit Geochemistry, Institute of GeochemistryChinese Academy of SciencesGuiyangChina

Personalised recommendations