Journal of Earth Science

, Volume 29, Issue 6, pp 1398–1408 | Cite as

Observations of the Singlets of Higher-Degree Modes Based on the OSE

  • Shi-Yu Zeng
  • Wen-Bin ShenEmail author
Geophysical Imaging from Subduction Zones to Petroleum Reservoirs


In this study, we select 18 SG (superconducting gravimeter) records from 15 GGP stations and 99 vertical, 69 horizontal components of IRIS broad-band seismograms during 2004 Sumatra Earthquake to detect the splitting of higher-degree Earth’s free oscillations modes (0S4, 0S7~0S10, 2S4, 1S5, 2S5, 1S6) and 12 inner-core sensitive modes (25S2, 27S2, 6S3, 9S3, 13S3, 15S3, 11S4, 18S4, 8S5, 11S5, 23S5, 16S6) by using OSE (optimal sequence estimation) method which only considers self-coupling. Results indicate that OSE can completely isolate singlets of high-degree modes in time-domain, effectively resolve the coupled multiplets independently, and reduce the possibility of mode mixing and end effect, showing that OSE could improve some signals’ signal-to-noise ratio. Comparing the results of SG records with seismic data sets suggests that the number of SG records is inadequate to detect all singlets of higher modes. Hence we mainly select plentiful seismograms of IRIS to observe the multiplets of higher modes. We estimate frequencies of the singlets using AR method and evaluate the measurement error using bootstrap method. Besides, we compared the observations with the predictions of PREM-tidal model. This study demonstrates that OSE is effective in isolating singlets of Earth’s free oscillations with higher modes. The experimental results may provide constraints to the construction of 3D Earth model.

Key words

free oscillation mode splitting detection high-degree modes OSE 


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The authors express their sincere thanks to H. Ding and W. Luan for frequent discussions about the contents of this paper. The authors appreciate Yves Rogister for providing the code for computing the theoretical eigensolutions of normal modes. The authors also thank two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments, suggestions and laborious corrections, which greatly improved the manuscript. This study was supported by the National 973 Project of China (No. 2013CB733305), the NSFC (Nos. 41174011, 41429401, 41574007, 41210006, 41128003, 41021061). The final publication is available at Springer via

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Copyright information

© China University of Geosciences and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Geodesy and Geomatics/Key Laboratory of the Geospace Environment and GeodesyWuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory for Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote SensingWuhan UniversityWuhanChina

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