Advertisement

The Journal of Physiological Sciences

, Volume 69, Issue 1, pp 165–170 | Cite as

Blood pressure-independent increase in the cortical cerebral blood flow induced by manual acupuncture of the auricular region in rats

  • Sae UchidaEmail author
  • Hiroshi Taniguchi
  • Yoshie Ito
  • Fusako Kagitani
Short Communication
  • 87 Downloads

Abstract

We aimed to determine whether acupuncture to the auricular region increases cortical regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). The rCBF was measured using laser speckle contrast imaging in urethane-anesthetized rats. Acupuncture stimulation was performed manually at the auricular concha or abdomen. The former’s stimulation significantly increased the rCBF of the bilateral cerebral cortex in the frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes without altering the systemic arterial pressure. In contrast, abdominal stimulation affected neither rCBF nor systemic arterial pressure. The increase in the rCBF was completely abolished by the severance of the somatic nerves that innervated the auricular region, comprising the trigeminal nerve, facial nerve, auricular branch of the vagal nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, and great auricular nerve. Thus, application of acupuncture to the auricular region increases the rCBF without increasing arterial pressure.

Keywords

Manual acupuncture Auricular region Cortical cerebral blood flow Somatic afferent nerves Rats 

Notes

Author contributions

SU and FK conceived and designed the research; all authors performed experiments, analyzed data, and interpreted results of experiments; SU drafted the manuscript; SU and FK edited and revised the manuscript; and all authors approved the final manuscript.

Funding

This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI (Grant number 15K08225 to S.U.).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. 1.
    Uchida S, Kagitani F, Suzuki A, Aikawa Y (2000) Effect of acupuncture-like stimulation on cortical cerebral blood flow in anesthetized rats. Jpn J Physiol 50:495–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Uchida S, Kagitani F (2015) Effect of acupuncture-like stimulation on cortical cerebral blood flow in aged rats. J Physiol Sci 65:67–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Adachi T, Meguro K, Sato A, Sato Y (1990) Cutaneous stimulation regulates blood flow in cerebral cortex in anesthetized rats. NeuroReport 1:41–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sato A, Sato Y, Schmidt RF (1997) The impact of somatosensory input on autonomic functions. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 130:328Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gao XY, Zhang SP, Zhu B, Zhang HQ (2008) Investigation of specificity of auricular acupuncture points in regulation of autonomic function in anesthetized rats. Auton Neurosci 138:50–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Folan-Curran J, Hickey K, Monkhouse WS (1994) Innervation of the rat external auditory meatus: a retrograde tracing study. Somatosens Mot Res 11:65–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    He W, Jing XH, Zhu B, Zhu XL, Li L, Bai WZ, Ben H (2013) The auriculo-vagal afferent pathway and its role in seizure suppression in rats. BMC Neurosci.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2202-14-85 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Peuker ET, Filler TJ (2002) The nerve supply of the human auricle. Clin Anat 15:35–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sato A, Sato Y, Suzuki A, Uchida S (1993) Neural mechanisms of the reflex inhibition and excitation of gastric motility elicited by acupuncture-like stimulation in anesthetized rats. Neurosci Res 18:53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sato A, Sato Y, Suzuki A, Uchida S (1996) Reflex modulation of catecholamine secretion and adrenal sympathetic nerve activity by acupuncture-like stimulation in anesthetized rat. Jpn J Physiol 46:411–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Piché M, Uchida S, Hara S, Aikawa Y, Hotta H (2010) Modulation of somatosensory-evoked cortical blood flow changes by GABAergic inhibition of the nucleus basalis of Meynert in urethane-anaesthetized rats. J Physiol 588:2163–2171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Paxinos G, Watson C (2009) The rat brain in stereotaxic coordinates (compact edition), 6th edn. Academic Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zilles K (1985) The cortex of the rat. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ayata C, Dunn AK, Gursoy-Özdemir Y, Huang Z, Boas DA, Moskowitz MA (2004) Laser speckle flowmetry for the study of cerebrovascular physiology in normal and ischemic mouse cortex. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 24:744–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dunn AK, Bolay H, Moskowitz MA, Boas DA (2001) Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 21:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shoji I, Kemuriyama T, Tandai-Hiruma M, Maruyama S, Tashiro A, Yokoe H, Nishida Y (2018) Reflex arc of the teeth clenching-induced pressor response in rats. J Physiol Sci 68:89–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Biesold D, Inanami O, Sato A, Sato Y (1989) Stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert increases cerebral cortical blood flow in rats. Neurosci Lett 98:39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kurosawa M, Sato A, Sato Y (1989) Stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert increases acetylcholine release in the cerebral cortex in rats. Neurosci Lett 98:45–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sato A, Sato Y (1992) Regulation of regional cerebral blood flow by cholinergic fibers originating in the basal forebrain. Neurosci Res 14:242–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Suzuki N, Hardebo JE, Kåhrström J, Owman C (1990) Selective electrical stimulation of postganglionic cerebrovascular parasympathetic nerve fibers originating from the sphenopalatine ganglion enhances cortical blood flow in the rat. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 10:383–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Morita-Tsuzuki Y, Hardebo JE, Bouskela E (1993) Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase attenuates the cerebral blood flow response to stimulation of postganglionic parasympathetic nerves in the rat. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 13:993–997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhao C (1990) Treatment of acute cerebro-vascular diseases and sequelae with acupuncture. J Tradit Chin Med 10:70–73Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jia CS, Ma XS, Li XF, Shi J, Li CF, Liu EJ, Zheng LY, Qin L, Xu XK (2011) Clinical study on auricular acupoint penetration needling along the skin for treatment of a variety of pain syndrome and dysfunction. J Tradit Chin Med 31:169–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rodríguez-Mansilla J, González-López-Arza MV, Varela-Donoso E, Montanero-Fernández J, Jiménez-Palomares M, Garrido-Ardila EM (2013) Ear therapy and massage therapy in the elderly with dementia: a pilot study. J Tradit Chin Med 33:461–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Physiological Society of Japan and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Autonomic NeuroscienceTokyo Metropolitan Institute of GerontologyTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations