Neuroprotective and antinociceptive effects of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy
Diabetes mellitus is associated with the development of neuronal tissue damage in different central and peripheral nervous system regions. A common complication of diabetes is painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We have explored the antihyperalgesic and neuroprotective properties of Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract (RE) in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. The nociceptive threshold and motor coordination of these diabetic rats was assessed using the tail-flick and rotarod treadmill tests, respectively. Activated caspase-3 and the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, both biochemical indicators of apoptosis, were assessed in the dorsal half of the lumbar spinal cord tissue by western blotting. Treatment of the diabetic rats with RE improved hyperglycemia, hyperalgesia and motor deficit, suppressed caspase-3 activation and reduced the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, suggesting that the RE has antihyperalgesic and neuroprotective effects in this rat model of STZ-induced diabetes. Cellular mechanisms underlying the observed effects may, at least partially, be related to the inhibition of neuronal apoptosis.
KeywordsDiabetic neuropathy Rosemary extract Hyperalgesia Apoptosis Rat
This work was supported by grants from the Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Science (Grant Numbers 221393).
AK, BR and SEM conceived and designed the experiments. BR, AK, ZH, MR and IF performed the experiments. AK and BR analyzed the data. BR and AK contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. AK, BR and ZH wrote the paper
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors report no conflict of interest.
- 8.Rasoulian B, Kheirandish F (2017) Herbal medicines: from traditional medicine to modern experimental approaches. Herb Med J 2(1):1–2Google Scholar
- 9.Kaeidi A, Taati M, Hajializadeh Z et al (2015) Aqueous extract of Zizyphus jujuba fruit attenuates glucose induced neurotoxicity in an in vitro model of diabetic neuropathy. Iran J Basic Med Sci 18:301Google Scholar
- 11.Ablat N, Lv D, Ren R et al (2016) Neuroprotective effects of a standardized flavonoid extract from safflower against a rotenone-induced rat model of Parkinson’s Disease. Molecules 21(9). https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21091107
- 17.Ghasemzadeh MR, Amin B, Mehri S et al (2016) Effect of alcoholic extract of aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on pain, inflammation and apoptosis induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 194:117–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.08.043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar M, Amin B, Mehri S et al (2017) Anti-inflammatory effects of ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and rosmarinic acid in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Biomed Pharmacother Biomed Pharmacother 86:441–449. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2016.12.049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Seyedemadi P, Rahnema M, Bigdeli MR et al (2016) The neuroprotective effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) hydro-alcoholic extract on cerebral ischemic tolerance in experimental stroke. Iran J Pharm Res 15:875–883Google Scholar
- 25.Rashidipour M, Hajializad Z, Esmaeili-Mahani S, Kaeidi A (2017) The effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract on the inhibition of high glucose-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells: an in vitro model of diabetic neuropathy. Herb Med J 2:114–1121Google Scholar
- 30.Al-Sereiti MR, Abu-Amer KM, Sen P (1999) Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and its therapeutic potentials. Indian J Exp Biol 37:124–130Google Scholar