The Journal of Physiological Sciences

, Volume 68, Issue 4, pp 493–501 | Cite as

Physical exercise reduces pyruvate carboxylase (PCB) and contributes to hyperglycemia reduction in obese mice

  • Vitor Rosetto Muñoz
  • Rafael Calais Gaspar
  • Barbara Moreira Crisol
  • Guilherme Pedron Formigari
  • Marcella Ramos Sant’Ana
  • José Diego Botezelli
  • Rodrigo Stellzer Gaspar
  • Adelino S. R. da Silva
  • Dennys Esper Cintra
  • Leandro Pereira de Moura
  • Eduardo Rochete Ropelle
  • José Rodrigo PauliEmail author
Original Paper


The present study evaluated the effects of exercise training on pyruvate carboxylase protein (PCB) levels in hepatic tissue and glucose homeostasis control in obese mice. Swiss mice were distributed into three groups: control mice (CTL), fed a standard rodent chow; diet-induced obesity (DIO), fed an obesity-inducing diet; and a third group, which also received an obesity-inducing diet, but was subjected to an exercise training protocol (DIO + EXE). Protocol training was carried out for 1 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 8 weeks, performed at an intensity of 60% of exhaustion velocity. An insulin tolerance test (ITT) was performed in the last experimental week. Twenty-four hours after the last physical exercise session, the animals were euthanized and the liver was harvested for molecular analysis. Firstly, DIO mice showed increased epididymal fat and serum glucose and these results were accompanied by increased PCB and decreased p-Akt in hepatic tissue. On the other hand, physical exercise was able to increase the performance of the mice and attenuate PCB levels and hyperglycemia in DIO + EXE mice. The above findings show that physical exercise seems to be able to regulate hyperglycemia in obese mice, suggesting the participation of PCB, which was enhanced in the obese condition and attenuated after a treadmill running protocol. This is the first study to be aimed at the role of exercise training in hepatic PCB levels, which may be a novel mechanism that can collaborate to reduce the development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes in DIO mice.


Obesity Type 2 diabetes Physical exercise PCB Hyperglycemia 



The authors would like to thank FAPESP (2013/21491-2), CNPq, CAPES and FAEPEX, for their indispensable support.

Author contributions

V.R.M. wrote the paper and had the overall responsibilities of the experiments of this study. V.R.M., R.C.G., B.M.C., G.P.F., M.R.S. and R.S.G. designed and performed the experiments, data collection and statistical analysis; R.S.G., J.D.B. and L.P.M. contributed to data analysis; A.R.S.S., D.E.C., E.R.R. and J.R.P contributed to discussion and supported the financial costs. All the authors have read and approved this manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards


This study was funded by FAPESP (2013/21491-2 and 2016/18488-8).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The experimental procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Use, Campinas University State–UNICAMP (no. 2805-1). All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© The Physiological Society of Japan and Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vitor Rosetto Muñoz
    • 1
  • Rafael Calais Gaspar
    • 1
  • Barbara Moreira Crisol
    • 1
  • Guilherme Pedron Formigari
    • 2
  • Marcella Ramos Sant’Ana
    • 2
  • José Diego Botezelli
    • 1
  • Rodrigo Stellzer Gaspar
    • 1
  • Adelino S. R. da Silva
    • 3
    • 4
  • Dennys Esper Cintra
    • 2
    • 5
  • Leandro Pereira de Moura
    • 1
    • 5
    • 6
  • Eduardo Rochete Ropelle
    • 1
    • 5
    • 6
  • José Rodrigo Pauli
    • 1
    • 5
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Molecular Biology of ExerciseUniversity of Campinas (UNICAMP)LimeiraBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratory of Nutritional GenomicsUniversity of Campinas (UNICAMP)LimeiraBrazil
  3. 3.Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation and Functional PerformanceRibeirão Preto Medical School, USPRibeirão PretoBrazil
  4. 4.School of Physical Education and Sport of Ribeirão PretoUniversity of São Paulo (USP)Ribeirão PretoBrazil
  5. 5.OCRC-Obesity and Comorbidities Research CenterUniversity of Campinas (UNICAMP)CampinasBrazil
  6. 6.CEPECE-Center of Research in Sport Sciences, School of Applied SciencesUniversity of Campinas (UNICAMP)LimeiraBrazil

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