The Journal of Physiological Sciences

, Volume 68, Issue 4, pp 345–353 | Cite as

A rotating cerium anode X-ray system allows visualization of intramural coronary vessels after cardiac stem cell therapy for myocardial infarction

  • Chiharu TanakaEmail author
  • Toru Hosoda
  • Yoshimori Ikeya
  • Yoshiro Shinozaki
  • Kikue Todoroki
  • Toru Shizuma
  • Takashi Shiraishi
  • Naoto Fukuyama
  • Toshihiko Ueda
  • Hidezo MoriEmail author
Original Paper


Conventional angiography is insufficient for evaluating the therapeutic effect of cardiac regeneration therapy. A microangiographic X-ray system using a cerium anode was developed. Cerium has a characteristic X-ray with a peak at 34.6 keV, which allows visualization of tiny amounts of iodine. The performance of the cerium anode X-ray system was evaluated in two excised normal canine hearts and in excised ischemic canine hearts treated with c-kit-positive cardiac stem cells (5 canines) or without cells (5 control canines). In the normal canines, branches penetrating from the left anterior descending artery into the myocardium were visualized, down to third-order branches. In just the treated hearts treated with stem cells, small vessels characterized by irregular vessel walls were observed. The cerium anode X-ray system allowed visualization of microvessels in excised ischemic canine hearts, and may evaluate the effect of cardiac stem cell therapy.


Microangiography C-kit-positive cardiac stem cells Cerium anode Myocardial infarction Canine models 



The study was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research B (20390336, 2007–2010), Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists B (25861233, 2013–2014), and Grants-in-Aid from The Cardiovascular Research Fund, Tokyo, Japan (H24-06-01, 2013–2014). Additionally, it was partly supported by a research grant from Health and Labour Sciences Research Grant (200624005A, 2004–2006) and The Research Funding for Longevity Sciences from National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology (NCGG), Japan (22-5, 2010–2012). We would like to acknowledge Masaki Inoue, Emiko Hayashi (Tokai University Institute of Innovative Science and Technology, Kanagawa, Japan), Sachie Tanaka, Yoko Takahari, Yoshiko Shinozaki, Katsuko Naito (Support Center for Medical Research and Education, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan), Fujio Ando and Rie Hasegawa (Tokai University Imaging Center, Kanagawa, Japan), who contributed to the experiments.

Author contributions

Design of study; CT, TH, HM. Experiment; CT, TH, YI, YS, KT, TS, TS. NF, HM. Data collecting and analyzing; CT, KT, HM, Drafting the article; CT, TH, HM.

Compliance with ethical standards


This study was funded by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research B (20390336, 2007–2010), Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists B (25861233, 2013–2014), and Grants-in-Aid from The Cardiovascular Research Fund, Tokyo, Japan (H24-06-01, 2013–2014). Additionally, it was partly supported by a research grant from Health and Labour Sciences Research Grant (200624005A, 2004–2006) and The Research Funding for Longevity Sciences from National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology (NCGG), Japan (22-5, 2010–2012).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict interest other than the funding mentioned above.

Research involving animals

All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.

Informed consent

This article does not contain any studies with human participants.


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Copyright information

© The Physiological Society of Japan and Springer Japan 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chiharu Tanaka
    • 1
    Email author
  • Toru Hosoda
    • 2
  • Yoshimori Ikeya
    • 3
  • Yoshiro Shinozaki
    • 4
  • Kikue Todoroki
    • 3
  • Toru Shizuma
    • 3
  • Takashi Shiraishi
    • 5
  • Naoto Fukuyama
    • 3
  • Toshihiko Ueda
    • 1
  • Hidezo Mori
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Cardiovascular SurgeryTokai University School of MedicineIseharaJapan
  2. 2.Tokai University Institute of Innovative Science and TechnologyIseharaJapan
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyTokai University School of MedicineIseharaJapan
  4. 4.Support Center for Medical Research and EducationTokai University School of MedicineIseharaJapan
  5. 5.NHK Engineering Services, Inc.TokyoJapan

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