Advertisement

Internationally-based indicators to measure Agri-food systems sustainability using food sovereignty as a conceptual framework

  • Adriana Ruiz-Almeida
  • Marta G. Rivera-FerreEmail author
Original Paper
  • 48 Downloads

Abstract

Agri-food systems are essential not only in achieving food security but also in achieving both social and environmental sustainability. Despite different actors use different frameworks to define and assess food systems sustainability, there is growing consensus on the need to approach them from a complex socio-ecological systems perspective. However, existing frameworks often lack the political dimension in the analysis of food systems outcomes. Food sovereignty has emerged as a proposal that centers the discussion in the entire system putting emphasis on the political aspects of food. In this paper, using food sovereignty as a conceptual framework, we propose a quantitative methodology that allows analysis of the functioning of food systems at the international level. We present a database with 97 indicators distributed into six categories: 1) access to resources; 2) productive models; 3) commercialization; 4) food consumption and the right to food; 5) agrarian policies and civil society organization, and 6) gender. We also present the limitations found in developing the database as well as its potential applications for a wide variety of actors.

Keywords

Agri-food system Food sovereignty Food security Sustainability Indicators database Political ecology 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research project has its roots in the research project made in collaboration with Miquel Ortega-Cerdà, Neşat Çomak, and Mahmud Mohammed. The authors recognized their valuable participation in the early stages of the project and gratefully acknowledge their work and dedication. Dr. Rivera-Ferre is a Ramon y Cajal Research Fellow from the Spanish Ministry of Economy (MINECO). MS. Adriana Ruiz-Almeida held a grant of the Mexican National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12571_2019_964_MOESM1_ESM.docx (15 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 14.5 kb)
12571_2019_964_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (6.4 mb)
ESM 2 (XLSX 6538 kb)

References

  1. Agarwal, B. (2014). Food sovereignty, food security and democratic choice: Critical contradictions, difficult conciliations. Journal of Peasant Studies, 41(6), 1247–1268.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03066150.2013.876996.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, P. (2013). Facing food security. Journal of Rural Studies, 29, 135–138.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2012.12.002.Google Scholar
  3. Altieri, M. A. (2009). Agroecology, small farms, and food sovereignty. Monthly Review, 61(3), 102–113.Google Scholar
  4. Badal, M., Binimelis, R., Gamboa, G., Heras, M., & Tendero, G. (2010). Arran de Terra I. Indicadors de Sobirania Alimentària à Catalunya. Retrieved from http://indicadors.arrandeterra.org/arran-de-terra-i.
  5. Béné, C., Oosterveer, P., Lamotte, L-. Brouwer, I. D., de Haan, S., Prager, S. D., Talsma, E. F. & Khoury, C. (2019). When food systems meet sustainability. Current narratives and implications for actions. World Development, 113, 116–130.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.08.011.
  6. Bernstein, H. (2014). Food sovereignty via the ‘peasant way’: A sceptical view. Journal of Peasant Studies, 41(6), 1031–1063.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03066150.2013.852082.Google Scholar
  7. Beuchelt, T. D., & Virchow, D. (2012). Food sovereignty or the human right to adequate food: Which concept serves better as international development policy for global hunger and poverty reduction? Agriculture and Human Values, 29(2), 259–273.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-012-9355-0.Google Scholar
  8. Binimelis, R., Rivera-Ferre, M. G., Tendero, G., Badal, M., Heras, M., Gamboa, G., & Ortega-Cerdà, M. (2014). Adapting established instruments to build useful food sovereignty indicators. Development Studies Research, 1(1), 324–339.  https://doi.org/10.1080/21665095.2014.973527.Google Scholar
  9. Blaikie, P. M., & Brookfield, H. C. (1987). Land degradation and society. Methuen.Google Scholar
  10. Bockstaller, C., & Girardin, P. (2003). How to validate environmental indicators. Agricultural Systems, 76(2), 639–653.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-521X(02)00053-7.Google Scholar
  11. Breeman, G., Dijkman, J., & Termeer, C. (2015). Enhancing food security through a multi-stakeholder process: The global agenda for sustainable livestock. Food Security, 7(2), 425–435.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0430-4.Google Scholar
  12. Brem-Wilson, J. (2015). Towards food sovereignty: Interrogating peasant voice in the United Nations Committee on world food security. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 42(1), 73–95.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03066150.2014.968143.
  13. Burnett, K., & Murphy, S. (2014). What place for international trade in food sovereignty? The Journal of Peasant Studies, 41(6), 1065–1084.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03066150.2013.876995.Google Scholar
  14. Calix de Dios, H., Putnam, H., Alvarado Dzul, S., Godek, W., Kissmann, S., Pierre, J. L., & Gliessman, S. (2014). The challenges of measuring food security and sovereignty in the Yucatán peninsula. Development in Practice, 24(2), 199–215.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09614524.2014.884540.Google Scholar
  15. Candel, J. J. L. (2014). Food security governance: A systematic literature review. Food Security, 6(4), 585–601.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-014-0364-2.Google Scholar
  16. Chandra, A., McNamara, K. E., & Dargusch, P. (2017). The relevance of political ecology perspectives for smallholder climate-smart agriculture: A review. Journal of Political Ecology, 24(1), 821.  https://doi.org/10.2458/v24i1.20969.Google Scholar
  17. Chaudhary, A., Gustafson, D., & Mathys, A. (2018). Multi-indicator sustainability assessment of global food systems. Nature Communications, 9(1), 848.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-03308-7.Google Scholar
  18. Chayanov, A. (1991). The theory of peasant co-operatives. Ohio State University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Clapp, J. (2009). Food Price volatility and vulnerability in the global south: Considering the global economic context. Third World Quarterly, 30(6), 1183–1196.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01436590903037481.Google Scholar
  20. Çomak, N. (2012). Food sovereignty indicators in Mediterranean Basin countries and comparative analysis with other indicators of development and sustainability. MSc Thesis. Universitat de Lleida.Google Scholar
  21. Davila, F. (2018). Human ecology and food systems: Insights from Philippines. Human Ecology Review, 24(1), 23–50.  https://doi.org/10.22459/HER.24.01.2018.
  22. Dekeyser, K., Korsten, L., & Fioramonti, L. (2018). Food sovereignty : Shifting debates on democratic food governance. Food Security, 10(1), 223–233.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-017-0763-2.Google Scholar
  23. Desmarais, A. A. (2003). The via Campesina: Peasant women at the Frontiers of food sovereignty. Canadian Woman Studies, 23(1), 140–145 Retrieved from http://pi.library.yorku.ca/ojs/index.php/cws/article/viewFile/6372/5560.Google Scholar
  24. Desmarais, A. A. (2007). La via Campesina. Globalization and the power of the peasantry. Madrid: Editorial Popular.Google Scholar
  25. Devereux, S. (2000). Famine in the twentieth century. IDS Working paper, Issue 105. 40pp.Google Scholar
  26. Dreher A., Gaston N., Martens, P. (2008). Consequences of globalisation reconsidered: Applying the KOF index. In: Measuring globalisation. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Eakin, H., Connors, J. P., Wharton, C., Bertmann, F., Xiong, A., & Stoltzfus, J. (2017). Identifying attributes of food system sustainability: Emerging themes and consensus. Agriculture and Human Values, 34(3), 757–773.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-016-9754-8.Google Scholar
  28. Edelman, M. (2014). Food sovereignty: Forgotten genealogies and future regulatory challenges. Journal of Peasant Studies, 41(6), 959–978.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03066150.2013.876998.Google Scholar
  29. Ericksen, P. J. (2008). Conceptualizing food systems for global environmental change research. Global Environmental Change, 18(1), 234–245.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2007.09.002.Google Scholar
  30. ETC. (2012). Just 3 companies control more than half (53%) of the global commercial market for seed. Retrieved March 27, 2018, from http://www.etcgroup.org/content/just-3-companies-control-more-half-53-global-commercial-market-seed
  31. FAO. (2010). Climate-smart agriculture: Policies, practices and financing for food security, adaptation and mitigation. Rome: FAO. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/i1881e/i1881e00.htm.
  32. FAO. (2013). El estado de la inseguridad alimentaria en el mundo. Las múltiples dimensiones de la inseguridad alimentaria. Roma. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/019/i3434s/i3434s.pdf.
  33. Finnis, E. (2007). The political ecology of dietary transitions: Changing production and consumption patterns in the Kolli Hills, India. Agriculture and Human Values, 24(3), 343–353.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-007-9070-4.Google Scholar
  34. Fischer, J., Gardner, T. A., Bennett, E. M., Balvanera, P., Biggs, R., Carpenter, S., Daw, T., Folke, C., Hill, R., Hughes, T. P., Luthe, T., Maass, M., Meacham, M., Norström, A. V., Peterson, G., Queiroz, C., Seppelt, R., Spierenburg, M., & Tenhunen, J. (2015). Advancing sustainability through mainstreaming a social-ecological systems perspective. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 14, 144–149.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2015.06.002.Google Scholar
  35. Foran, T., Butler, J. R. A., Williams, L. J., Wanjura, W. J., Hall, A., Carter, L., & Carberry, P. S. (2014). Taking complexity in food systems seriously: An interdisciplinary analysis. World Development, 61, 85–101.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.03.023.
  36. Fullbrook, D. (2010). Food as security. Food Security, 2(1), 5–20.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-009-0050-y.Google Scholar
  37. Galt, R. E. (2013). Placing food Systems in First World Political Ecology: A review and research agenda. Geography Compass, 7(9), 637–658.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gec3.12070.Google Scholar
  38. García, X. (2003). La Soberanía Alimentaria : un nuevo paradigma. Colección Soberanía Alimentaria de Veterinarios Sin Fronteras, 1–28.Google Scholar
  39. Garcia Forés, E. (2014). El Feminismo Campesino y Popular de las Mujeres de la Coordinadora Latinoamericana de Organizaciones del Campo. In E. Siliprandi & G. P. Zuluaga (Eds.), Género, agroecología y soberanía alimentaria (pp. 93–112). Capellades (Barcelona).Google Scholar
  40. Gasparatos, A., El-Haram, M., & Horner, M. (2008). A critical review of reductionist approaches for assessing the progress towards sustainability. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 28(4–5), 286–311.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2007.09.002.Google Scholar
  41. Gustafson, D., Gutman, A., Leet, W., Drewnowski, A., Fanzo, J., & Ingram, J. (2016). Seven food system metrics of sustainable nutrition security. Sustainability, 8(3), 196.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su8030196.Google Scholar
  42. Hall, D. (2015). The political ecology of international Agri-food systems. In T. Perreaultm, G. Bridge, & J. McCarthy (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of political ecology. London: Routledge.  https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315759289.ch31.Google Scholar
  43. Holt-Giménez, E., & Altieri, M. A. (2012). Agroecology, food sovereignty and the new green revolution. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 37(March 2014), 90–102.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10440046.2012.716388.Google Scholar
  44. Hospes, O., & Brons, A. (2016). Food system governance. A systematic literature review. In A. Kennedy & J. Liljeblad (Eds.), Food systems governance challenges for justice, equality and human rights. London: Routledge.  https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315674957.Google Scholar
  45. Hsu, A., Johnson, L. A., & Lloyd, A. (2013). Measuring Progress: A practical guide from the developers of the environmental performance index (EPI). New Haven.Google Scholar
  46. IFAD. (2010). Rural poverty report 2011. Retrieved from https://www.ifad.org/en/web/knowledge/publication/asset/39176373.
  47. Iles, A., & Montenegro De Wit, M. (2015). Sovereignty at what scale? An inquiry into multiple dimensions of food sovereignty. Globalizations, 12(4), 481–497.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14747731.2014.957587.Google Scholar
  48. Imperial, M. (2019). New materialist feminist ecological practices: La Via Campesina and activist environmental work. Social Sciences, 8(8), 235.Google Scholar
  49. ISF. (2012). Estimated value of the domestic seed market in selected countries for the year 2011. Nyon: International Seed Federation.Google Scholar
  50. Islam, D., & Berkes, F. (2016). Indigenous peoples’ fisheries and food security: A case from northern Canada. Food Security, 8(4), 815–826.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-016-0594-6.Google Scholar
  51. Ivanoff, R. F. (2012). Political ecology of food security and nutrition in the municipality of Jesus De Otoro, Honduras. MSc Thesis. The University of Guelph. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10214/3668
  52. Jackson, L. E., Kurtz, J. C., & Fisher, W. S. (2000). Evaluation guidelines for ecological indicators (EPA/620/R-99/005). Office of Research and Development: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-160X(01)00005-X.Google Scholar
  53. Johns, T., & Sthapit, B. R. (2004). Biocultural diversity in the sustainability of developing-country food systems. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 25(2), 143–155.  https://doi.org/10.1177/156482650402500207.Google Scholar
  54. Kloppenburg, J. R. (1988). First the seed. The political economy of plant biotechnology, 1492–2000 (second). Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  55. Kloppenburg, J. R. (2010). Impeding dispossession, enabling repossession: Biological open source and the recovery of seed sovereignty. Journal of Agrarian Change, 10(3), 367–388.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0366.2010.00275.x.Google Scholar
  56. Lang, T., & Barling, D. (2012). Food security and food sustainability: Reformulating the debate. The Geographical Journal, 178(4), 313–326.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4959.2012.00480.x.Google Scholar
  57. Levkoe, C. Z., & Blay-Palmer, A. (2018). Food counts: Food systems report cards, food sovereignty and the politics of indicators. Canadian Food Studies / La Revue Canadienne Des Études Sur l’alimentation, 5(3), 49–75.  https://doi.org/10.15353/cfs-rcea.v5i3.277.Google Scholar
  58. Margulis, M. E. (2013). The regime complex for food security: Implications for the global hunger challenge. Global Governance, 19, 53–67.  https://doi.org/10.5555/1075-2846-19.1.53.Google Scholar
  59. Mbow, C., C. Rosenzweig, L.G. Barioni, T.G. Benton, M. Herrero, M. Krishnapillai, E. Liwenga, P. Prahan, M.G. Rivera-Ferre, T. Sapkota, F.N. Tubiello, Y. Xu. (2019) Food Security. In Skea, J. and Co-Editors. IPCC Special Report on Climate Change and Land.Google Scholar
  60. McIntyre, B. D., Herren, H. R., Wakhungu, J., & Watson, R. T. (2009). Agriculture at a crossroads. Synthesis report. (B. D. McIntyre, H. R. Herren, J. Wakhungu, & R. T. Watson, Eds.). Washington, D.C.: Island press. Retrieved from http://apps.unep.org/redirect.php?file=/publications/pmtdocuments/-Agriculture%20at%20a%20crossroads%20-%20Synthesis%20report-2009Agriculture_at_Crossroads_Synthesis_Report.pdf.
  61. McKenzie, F. C., & Williams, J. (2015). Sustainable food production: Constraints, challenges and choices by 2050. Food Security, 7(2), 221–233.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0441-1.Google Scholar
  62. McMichael, P. (2011). Food system sustainability: Questions of environmental governance in the new world (dis)order. Global Environmental Change, 21, 804–812.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.03.016.Google Scholar
  63. Mohammed, M. (2012). Pilot food sovereignty index and policy recommendation to alleviate poverty, hunger and malnutrition in the horn of Africa. Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Retrieved from https://afepa.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Mahumd-Mohammed-Mahumd.pdf.
  64. Moragues-Faus, A., & Carroll, B. (2018). Reshaping urban political ecologies: An analysis of policy trajectories to deliver food security. Food Security, 10, 1337–1351.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-018-0855-7.Google Scholar
  65. Moragues-Faus, A., & Marsden, T. (2017). The political ecology of food: Carving ‘spaces of possibility’ in a new research agenda. Journal of Rural Studies, 55, 275–288.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JRURSTUD.2017.08.016.Google Scholar
  66. Niemeijer, D., & de Groot, R. S. (2008). A conceptual framework for selecting environmental indicator sets. Ecological Indicators, 8(1), 14–25.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2006.11.012.Google Scholar
  67. OECD Development Centre/OECD. (2019), Gender, institutions and development (edition 2014), OECD International Development Statistics (database),  https://doi.org/10.1787/data-00728-en (Accessed on 1 January 2019).
  68. Ortega-Cerdà, M., & Rivera-Ferre, M. G. (2010). Indicadores internacionales de Soberanía Alimentaria. Nuevas herramientas para una nueva agricultura. Revista Iberoamericana, 14, 53–77. Retrieved from https://ddd.uab.cat/pub/revibec/revibec_a2010v14/revibec_a2010v14p53.pdf.
  69. Otero, G., Pechlaner, G., & Gürcan, E. C. (2013). The political economy of “food security” and trade: Uneven and combined dependency. Rural Sociology, 78(3), 263–289.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ruso.12011.Google Scholar
  70. Palomino Amador, A. I. (2012). Evaluando el Estado de la Soberanía Alimentaria en el Mundo a través de Indicadores. Universidad Internacional de Andalucía.Google Scholar
  71. Patel, R. (2009). Food sovereignty. Journal of Peasant Studies, 36(3), 663–706.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03066150903143079.Google Scholar
  72. Pérez Orozco, A. (2014). Subversión feminista de la economía. Madrid: Traficante de Sueños M-15332-2014.Google Scholar
  73. Porter, J. R., Xie, L., Challinor, A. J., Cochrane, K., Howden, S. M., Iqbal, M. M., et al. (2014). Food security and food production systems. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Vol. 35, pp. 485–533).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2009.00312.x.Google Scholar
  74. Powell, B., Thilsted, S. H., Ickowitz, A., Termote, C., Sunderland, T., & Herforth, A. (2015). Improving diets with wild and cultivated biodiversity from across the landscape. Food Security, 7(3), 535–554.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0466-5.Google Scholar
  75. Reardon, S. J. A. & Pérez, R. A. (2010). Agroecology and the development of indicators of food sovereignty in Cuban food systems. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 34(8), 907–922.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10440046.2010.519205
  76. Rivera-Ferre, M. G. (2008). The future of agriculture. EMBO Reports, 9(11), 1061–1066.  https://doi.org/10.1038/embor.2008.196.
  77. Rivera-Ferre, M. G., Ortega-Cerdà, M., & Baumgärtner, J. (2013). Rethinking study and Management of Agricultural Systems for policy design. Sustainability, 5(9), 3858–3875.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su5093858.Google Scholar
  78. Robbins, P. (2012). Political ecology: A critical introduction. 2nd Ed. West Sussex: J. Wiley & sons.Google Scholar
  79. Rockström, J., Williams, J., Daily, G., et al. (2017). Sustainable intensification of agriculture for human prosperity and global sustainability. Ambio, 46, 4–17.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-016-0793-6.Google Scholar
  80. Rosset, P. (2009). Fixing our global food system: Food sovereignty and redistributive land reform. Monthly Review, 61(3), 114.  https://doi.org/10.14452/MR-061-03-2009-07_9.Google Scholar
  81. Rosset, P. (2011). Food sovereignty and alternative paradigms to confront land grabbing and the food and climate crises. Development, 54(1), 21–30. Retrieved from  https://doi.org/10.1057/dev.2010.102.
  82. Rotberg, R., & Gisselquist, R. (2007). Ibrahim index of African governance. Boston: Retrieved from https://www.belfercenter.org/publication/ibrahim-index-african-governance.
  83. Ruiz Almeida, A. (2012). Food sovereignty in Latin America. MSc Thesis. Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Retrieved from http://upcommons.upc.edu/bitstream/handle/2099.1/19268/TFM_RUIZ_ALMEIDA_ADRIANA.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.
  84. Sage, C. (2013). The interconnected challenges for food security from a food regimes perspective: Energy, climate and malconsumption. Journal of Rural Studies, 29, 71–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JRURSTUD.2012.02.005.Google Scholar
  85. Shiva, V., & Mies, M. (1998). La práxis del ecofeminismo- Biotecnología, consumo, reproducción. Capellades (Barcelona): Icaria Editorial.Google Scholar
  86. Siliprandi, E., & Zuluaga, G. P. (2014). Género, Agroecología y Soberanía Alimentaria. Perspectivas Ecofeministas. (E. Siliprandi & G. P. Zuluaga, Eds.). Capellades (Barcelona): Icaria Editorial.Google Scholar
  87. Sisto, I. (2006). Gender-sensitive indicators for natural resource management. In J. A. Sagardoy, A. Hamdy, G. Trisorio-Luizzi, N. Lamaddalena, R. Quagliariello, C. Bogliotti, & R. Guelloubi (Eds.), Institutional coordination and streamlining partners activities in the framework of GEWAMED project. Options Méditerranéennes: Série A. Séminaires Méditerranéens, 68, 49–56. Bari: CIHEAM. Retrieved from http://om.ciheam.org/article.php?IDPDF=800502.
  88. Smith, P., Bustamante, M., Ahammad, H., Clark, H., Dong, H., Elsiddig, E. A., et al. (2014). Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU). In O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, et al. (Eds.), Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (pp. 811–922). Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.900074.Google Scholar
  89. Tayyib, M. S., Rocca, V., & Bossany, Z. (2011). Core gender indicators for assessing the socio-economic status of the agricultural and rural population. Wye city group on statistics on rural development and agriculture household income. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Europe/documents/WPW/gender_files/Gender_Indicators_en.pdf.
  90. Thompson, J., Millstone, E., Scooners, I., Ely, A., Marshall, F., Shah, E., & Stagl, S. (2007). Agri-Food System Dynamics: pathways to sustainability in an era of uncertainty (STEPS working paper no. 4). Brighton.Google Scholar
  91. Tilzey, M. (2018). Political ecology, food regimes, and food sovereignty. Crisis, resistance, and resilience. Cham: Springer International Publishing.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64556-8.Google Scholar
  92. Vallejo-Rojas, V., Ravera, F., & Rivera-Ferre, M. G. (2016). Developing an integrated framework to assess Agri-food systems and its application in the Ecuadorian Andes. Regional Environmental Change, 16, 2171–2185.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-015-0887-x
  93. Wald, N., & Hill, D. P. (2016). ‘Rescaling’ alternative food systems: From food security to food sovereignty. Agriculture and Human Values, 33(1), 203–213.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-015-9623-x.Google Scholar
  94. Wheeler, T., & von Braun, J. (2013). Climate change impacts on global food security. Science, 341(6145), 508–513.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1239402.Google Scholar
  95. Windfuhr, M., & Jonsén, J. (2005). Food Sovereignty: Towards democracy in localized food systems (first). (FIAN international, Ed.), World. Warwickshire, UK: ITDG publishing.Google Scholar
  96. Wittman, H. (2011). Food sovereignty: A new rights framework for food and nature? Environment and Society: Advances in Research, 2(1), 87–105.  https://doi.org/10.3167/ares.2011.020106.Google Scholar
  97. Wittman, H. (2015). From protest to policy: The challenges of institutionalizing food sovereignty. Canadian Food Studies / La Revue Canadienne Des Études Sur l’alimentation, 2(2), 174.  https://doi.org/10.15353/cfs-rcea.v2i2.99.Google Scholar
  98. Woodley, E., Crowley, E., Pryck, J. D. De, & Carmen, A. (2009). Cultural indicators of indigenous peoples’ food and agro-ecological systems. SARD initiative. FAO, International Indian Treaty Council. Rome, Italy. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/tempref/docrep/fao/011/ak243e/ak243e00.pdf.
  99. Zimmerer, K. S., & Bassett, T. J. (2003). Political ecology : An integrative approach to geography and environment-development studies. New York, London: Guilford Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society for Plant Pathology and Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sustainability Measurement and Modeling Lab (SUMM Lab), Research Institute for Sustainability Science and TechnologyPolytechnic University of CataloniaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Research group Inclusive Societies, Policies and Communities (SoPCi), Chair of Agroecology and Food SystemsUniversity of Vic - Central University of CataloniaVicSpain

Personalised recommendations