Advertisement

Food Security

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 1073–1088 | Cite as

Impact of climate-smart agriculture adoption on the food security of coastal farmers in Bangladesh

  • Md Kamrul HasanEmail author
  • Sam Desiere
  • Marijke D’Haese
  • Lalit Kumar
Original Paper

Abstract

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is a suggested pathway to the improvement of food security in a changing climate. The Department of Agricultural Extension under the Bangladesh Ministry of Agriculture has been promoting CSA with farmers through climate field schools since 2010. This study investigated the impact of adoption of CSA practices on the household food security of coastal farmers in southern Bangladesh. Factors determining household food security were also explored. Data were collected from 118 randomly selected farmers of Kalapara sub-district in Patuakhali, Bangladesh. We identified 17 CSA practices that were adopted by the farmers in the study area. Those practices were saline-tolerant crop varieties, flood-tolerant crop varieties, drought-resistant crop varieties, early maturing rice, vegetables in a floating bed, ‘sorjan’ method of farming, pond-side vegetable cultivation, the cultivation of watermelon, sunflower or plum, relay cropping, urea deep placement, organic fertilizer, mulching, use of pheromone trap, rain water harvesting and seed storage in plastic bags or glass bottles. The farmers adopted on average seven out of these CSA practices. Among the sampled households, 32% were assessed as food secure, 51% were mildly to moderately food insecure and 17% were severely food insecure. Adoption of CSA practices was positively associated with household food security in terms of per capita annual food expenditure (β = 1.48 Euro, p = 0.015). Households with a better educational level, farming as a major occupation, a larger pond size, greater number of cattle, higher household income, smaller family size and less difficulty with access to markets were likely to be more food secure. Increasing the adoption of CSA was important to enhance food security but not a sufficient condition since other characteristics of the farmers (personal education, pond size, cattle ownership and market difficulty) had large effects on food security. Nevertheless, increased adoption of saline-tolerant and flood-tolerant crop varieties, pond-side vegetable cultivation and rainwater harvesting for irrigation could further improve the food security of coastal farmers in southern Bangladesh.

Keywords

Climate-smart agriculture Climate field school Adoption quotient Food security indicators Coastal farmers Southern Bangladesh 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was a part of the research conducted for the International Master of Science in Rural Development in Ghent University, Belgium, with financial support from the European Union and Ghent University. We are grateful to the farmers and other respondents who cordially provided necessary information for this research. We express our gratitude to the anonymous reviewers and the editors whose valuable suggestions were essential for this publication.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abah, J., Ishaq, M. N., & Wada, A. C. (2010). The role of biotechnology in ensuring food security and sustainable agriculture. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(52), 8896–8900.Google Scholar
  2. Acevedo, M. F. (2011). Interdisciplinary progress in food production, food security and environment research. Environmental Conservation, 38, 151–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adesina, A. A., & Baidu-Forson, J. (1995). Farmers’ perceptions and adoption of new agricultural technology: Evidence from analysis in Burkina Faso and Guinea, West Africa. Agricultural Economics, 13, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad, M., & Rahman, A. (2011). The stimulating role of NGOs in Bangladesh. In R. Misdorp (Ed.), Climate of coastal cooperation (pp. 62–63). Leiden: Coastal and Marine Union - EUCC.Google Scholar
  5. Ahmed, A. U. (2006). Bangladesh climate change impacts and vulnerability: A synthesis. Dhaka: Comprehensive Disaster Management Program, Climate Change Cell, Department of Environmental Component, Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  6. Ajij, M., Haidar, M. L., & Rahman, M. M. (Eds.) (2014). Climate field school (CFS) training module. Dhaka: Disaster and Climate Risk Management Project in Agriculture Project, Department of Agricultural Extension, Dhaka. Available in Bengali at http://www.dae.gov.bd/site/page/168dad4b-851f-4669-9cd1-bb215e70c66f/Climate-Field-School-Training-Module.
  7. Aleksandrova, M., Lamers, J. P. A., Martius, C., & Tischbein, B. (2014). Rural vulnerability to environmental change in the irrigated lowlands of Central Asia and options for policy-makers: A review. Environmental Science and Policy, 41, 77–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Awal, M. A. (2014). Water logging in southwestern coastal region of Bangladesh: Local adaptation and policy options. Science Postprint, 1, e00038.Google Scholar
  9. Bangladesh National Portal. (2017). Ek nojore Kalapara upazila. http://www.kalapara.patuakhali.gov.bd/site/page/96782943-17a2-11e7-9461-286ed488c766. Accessed 11 November 2017.
  10. Basak, J. K., Titumir, R. A. M., & Dey, N. C. (2013). Climate change in Bangladesh: A historical analysis of temperature and rainfall data. Journal of Environment, 2, 41–46.Google Scholar
  11. Bashir, M. K., & Schilizzi, S. (2013). Determinants of rural household food security: A comparative analysis of African and Asian studies. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93, 1251–1258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. BBS. (2010). Household income and expenditure survey report. Dhaka: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
  13. Beuchelt, T. D., & Badstue, L. (2013). Gender, nutrition- and climate-smart food production: Opportunities and trade-offs. Food Security, 5(5), 709–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bonatti, M., D'Agostini, L. R., Schlindwein, S. L., Fantini, A. C., Martins, S. R., Plencovich, M. C., et al. (2011). Mudanças climáticas e percepções de atores sociais no meio rural. Geosul, Florianópolis, 26, 145–−164.Google Scholar
  15. Branca, G., McCarthy, N., Lipper, L., & Jolejole, M. C. (2011). Climate smart agriculture: A synthesis of empirical evidence of food security and mitigation benefits from improved cropland management. Mitigation of Climate Change in Agriculture Series, 3, 1–42.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, M. E., & Funk, C. C. (2008). Food security under climate change. Science, 319, 580–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brüssow, K., Faße, A., & Grote, U. (2017). Implications of climate-smart strategy adoption by farm households for food security in Tanzania. Food Security, 9(6), 1203–1218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burke, M., & Lobell, D. (2010). Food security and adaptation to climate change: What we know? In D. Lobell & M. Burke (Eds.), Climate change and food security: Adapting agriculture to a warmer climate (pp. 133–154). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Campbell, B. M., Thornton, P., Zougmoré, R., van Asten, P., & Lipper, L. (2014). Sustainable intensification: What is its role in climate smart agriculture? Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 8, 39–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. CIAT & World Bank. (2017). Climate-smart agriculture in Bangladesh. Washinton, D.C.: CSA Country Profiles for Asia Series. International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and World Bank.Google Scholar
  21. Coates, J., Wilde, P. E., Webb, P., Rogers, B. L., & Houser, R. F. (2006). Comparison of a qualitative and a quantitative approach to developing a household food insecurity scale for Bangladesh. The Journal of Nutrition, 136, 1420S–1430S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Coates, J., Swindale, A., & Bilinsky, P. (2007). Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) for measurement of household food access: Indicator guide (v. 3). Washington, D.C.: Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project (FANTA), Academy for Educational Development.Google Scholar
  23. Dasgupta, S., Hossain, M. M., Huq, M., & Wheeler, D. (2014). Climate change, soil salinity, and the economics of high-yield rice production in coastal Bangladesh: Policy Research Working Paper No. 7140, December. World Bank Group, Environmental and Energy Team.Google Scholar
  24. De Cock, N., D'Haese, M., Vink, N., van Rooyen, C. J., Staelens, L., Schönfeldt, H. C., et al. (2013). Food security in rural areas of Limpopo province, South Africa. Food Security, 5(2), 269–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Deitchler, M., Ballard, T., Swindale, A., & Coates, J. (2010). Validation of a measure of household hunger for cross-cultural use. Washington, D.C.: Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II Project (FANTA-2), FHI 360.Google Scholar
  26. Eva, S. S. (2014). Technology transfer for food security in the context of climate change: A case study of Bangladesh. Journal of South Asian Studies, 2(3), 275–294.Google Scholar
  27. FAO. (1996). Rome declaration on world food security and world food summit plan of action. In In World Food Summit, 13–17 November. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  28. FAO. (2002). The state of food insecurity in the world 2001. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  29. FAO. (2010). Climate-smart agriculture: Policies, practices and financing for food security, adaptation and mitigation. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  30. FAO. (2013). Climate-smart agriculture sourcebook. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  31. FAO. (2014). FAO success stories on climate-smart agriculture. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  32. Faraway, J. J. (2002). Practical regression and anova using R. https://cran.rproject.org/doc/contrib/Faraway-PRA.pdf. Accessed 20 Dec 2015.
  33. Fox, J., & Weisberg, S. (2011). An {R} companion to applied regression (2ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  34. Frankenberger, T. R. (1992). Household food security: A conceptual review. In S. Maxwell & T. R. Frankenberger (Eds.), Household food security: Concepts, indicators, measurements (pp. 73–134). New York: United Nations Children's Fund - International Fund for Agricultural Development.Google Scholar
  35. Gbetibouo, G. A. (2009). Understanding farmers' perceptions and adaptations to climate change and variability: The case of the Limpopo Basin, South Africa: IFPRI discussion paper 00849, International Food Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  36. Gujarati, D. N., & Porter, D. C. (2009). Basic econometrics (5ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill/ Irwin.Google Scholar
  37. Haque, S. A. (2006). Salinity problems and crop production in coastal regions of Bangladesh. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 38, 1359–1365.Google Scholar
  38. IFDC. (2017). Rapid introduction and market development for urea deep placement technology for lowland transplanted rice: A reference guide. Muscle Shoals: International Fertilizer Development Center.Google Scholar
  39. IFPRI. (2009). Climate change: Impact on agriculture and costs of adaptation. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.Google Scholar
  40. IPCC. (2007). Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. In M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden, & C. E. Hanson (Eds.), Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. IPCC. (2012). Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. In C. B. Field, V. Barros, T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, D. J. Dokken, K. L. Ebi, et al. (Eds.), A special report of working groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  42. IPCC. (2013). Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. IPCC. (2014). Climate change 2014: Synthesis report (Contribution of working groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change). Geneva: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.Google Scholar
  44. Islam, M. R. (2004). Where land meets the sea: A profile of the coastal zone of Bangladesh. Dhaka: The University Press Limited.Google Scholar
  45. Islam, M. B., Ali, M. Y., Amin, M., & Zaman, S. M. (2011). Climatic variations: Farming systems and livelihoods in the high barind tract and coastal areas of Bangladesh. In R. Lal, M. V. K. Sivakumar, S. M. A. Faiz, A. H. M. M. Rahman, & K. R. Islam (Eds.), Climate change and food security in South Asia (pp. 477–498). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  46. Islam, S. M. M., Gaihre, Y. K., Biswas, J. C., Jahan, M. S., Singh, U., Adhikary, S. K., Satter, M. A., & Saleque, M. A. (2018). Different nitrogen rates and methods of application for dry season rice cultivation with alternate wetting and drying irrigation: Fate of nitrogen and grain yield. Agricultural Water Management, 196, 144–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kabir, H., & Golder, J. (2017). Rainfall variability and its impact on crop agriculture in south-west region of Bangladesh. Journal of Climatology and Weather Forecasting, 5, 1–20.Google Scholar
  48. Karmalkar, A., McSweeney, C., New, M., & Lizcano, G. (2010). UNDP climate change country profiles: Bangladesh. http://www.geog.ox.ac.uk/research/climate/projects/undp-cp/UNDP_reports/Bangladesh/Bangladesh.hires.report.pdf. Accessed 20 December 2015.
  49. Kassie, M., Ndiritu, S. W., & Shiferaw, B. (2012). Determinants of food security in Kenya, a gender perspective. In Contributed paper prepared for presentation at the 86th Annual Conference of the Agricultural Economics Society, 16–18 April, 2012 (pp. 1–31): University of Warwick, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  50. Knowler, D., & Bradshaw, B. (2007). Farmers' adoption of conservation agriculture: A review and synthesis of recent research. Food Policy, 32, 25–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Leiserowitz, A. (2006). Climate change risk perception and policy preferences: The role of affect, imagery, and values. Climatic Change, 77, 45–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lipper, L., Thornton, P., Campbell, B. M., Baedeker, T., Braimoh, A., Bwalya, M., Caron, P., Cattaneo, A., Garrity, D., Henry, K., Hottle, R., Jackson, L., Jarvis, A., Kossam, F., Mann, W., McCarthy, N., Meybeck, A., Neufeldt, H., Remington, T., Sen, P. T., Sessa, R., Shula, R., Tibu, A., & Torquebiau, E. F. (2014). Climate-smart agriculture for food security. Nature Climate Change, 4(12), 1068–1072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mainuddin, K., Rahman, A., Islam, N., & Quasem, S. (2011). Planning and costing agriculture's adaptation to climate change in the salinity-prone cropping system of Bangladesh. London: International Institute for Environment and Development.Google Scholar
  54. Mallik, D., Amin, A., & Rahman, A. (2012). Case study on climate compatible development (CCD) in agriculture for food security in Bangladesh. Dhaka: Bangladesh Center for Advanced Studies (BCAS).Google Scholar
  55. Mason, R., Ndlovu, P., Parkins, J. R., & Luckert, M. K. (2015). Determinants of food security in Tanzania: Gendered dimensions of household headship and control of resources. Agriculture and Human Values, 32, 539–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mequanent, M., & Esubalew, T. (2015). Analysis of household level determinants of food security in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 6, 230–241.Google Scholar
  57. Misselhorn, A. A. (2005). What drives food insecurity in southern Africa? A meta-analysis of household economy studies. Global Environmental Change, 15(1), 33–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Molnar, P., & England, P. (1990). Late Cenozoic uplift of mountain ranges and global climate change: Chicken or egg? Nature, 346, 29–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nash, J., Grewer, U., Bockel, L., Galford, G., Pirolli, G., & White, J. (2016). Accelerating agriculture productivity improvement in Bangladesh: Mitigation co-benefits of nutrient and water use efficiency: CCAFS Info Note. Published by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).Google Scholar
  60. Pannell, D. J., Marshall, G. R., Barr, B., Curtis, A., Vanclay, F., & Wilkinson, R. (2006). Understanding and promoting adoption of conservation practices by rural landholders. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 46, 1407–1426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pareek, U., & Chattopadhyay, S. N. (1966). Adoption quotient: A measure of multipractice adoption behaviour. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 2(1), 95–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pettersson, H. (2005). Survey design and sample design in household budget surveys. In UnitedNations (Ed.), Household sample surveys in developing and transition countries (pp. 557–570). New York:Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.Google Scholar
  63. Pye-Smith, C. (2011). Farming’s climate-smart future: Placing agriculture at the heart of climate-change policy. Wageningen: Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation, CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security.Google Scholar
  64. R Core Team. (2016). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/.
  65. Ramachandran, N. (2013). Gender, climate change and household food security: A south Asian perspective. In M. Behnassi, O. Pollmann, & G. Kissinger (Eds.), Sustainable food security in the era of local and global enironmental change (pp. 69–84). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5ed.). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  67. Rose, D., & Charlton, K. E. (2002). Quantitative indicators from a food expenditure survey can be used to target the food insecure in South Africa. The Journal of Nutrition, 132(11), 3235–3242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sain, G., Loboguerrero, A. M., Corner-Dolloff, C., Lizarazo, M., Nowak, A., Martínez-Barón, D., & Andrieu, N. (2017). Costs and benefits of climate-smart agriculture: The case of the dry corridor in Guatemala. Agricultural Systems, 151, 163–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schmidhuber, J., & Tubiello, F. N. (2007). Global food security under climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 19703–−19708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sekhampu, T. J. (2013). Determinants of the food security status of households receiving government grants in Kwakwatsi, South Africa. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4(1), 147–153.Google Scholar
  71. Shelley, I. J., Takahashi-Nosaka, M., Kano-Nakata, M., Haque, M. S., & Inukai, Y. (2016). Rice cultivation in Bangladesh: Present scenario, problems, and prospects. Journal of International Cooperation for Agricultural Development, 14, 20–29.Google Scholar
  72. Swindale, A., & Bilinsky, P. (2006). Household dietary diversity score (HDDS) for measurement of household food access: Indicator guide (v. 2). Washington: FHI 360/ Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance III Project (FANTA).Google Scholar
  73. The Asia Foundation. (2012). A Situation analysis of climate change adaptation initiatives in Bangladesh. Dhaka: The Asia Foundation.Google Scholar
  74. Thierfelder, C., Chivenge, P., Mupangwa, W., Rosenstock, T. S., Lamanna, C., & Eyre, J. X. (2017). How climate-smart is conservation agriculture (CA)? – Its potential to deliver on adaptation, mitigation and productivity on smallholder farms in southern Africa. Food Security, 9(3), 537–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. UNDP. (2013). Comprehensive disaster management programme: What is the project about? http://www.bd.undp.org/content/bangladesh/en/home/operations/projects/crisis_prevention_and_recovery/comprehensive-disaster-management-programme.html. Accessed 18 December 2015.
  76. UNDP. (2016). Technical notes: Calculating the human development indices. New York: United Nations Development Program.Google Scholar
  77. USAID. (1992). USAID policy determination: Definition of food security. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNAAV468.pdf. Accessed 17 December 2015.
  78. USAID. (2013). Assessement: Baseline survey for an impact evaluation of the greenbelt transformation initiative. Washington: United States Agency for International Develoment.Google Scholar
  79. WFP. (2015). Bangladesh: Overview. https://www.wfp.org/countries/Bangladesh/Overview. Accessed 6 December 2015.
  80. Wheeler, T., & von Braun, J. (2013). Climate change impacts on global food security. Science, 341(6145), 508–513.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1239402.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Wickham, H. (2009). Elegant gaphics for data analysis. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  82. World Bank. (2012). Bangladesh and Maldives respond to climate change impacts. http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2012/12/07/bangladesh-maldives-respond-to-climate-change-impacts. Accessed 17 December 2015.
  83. World Bank. (2016). CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita). https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EN.ATM.CO2E.PC?view=chart&year_high_desc=false. Accessed 11 November 2017.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. and International Society for Plant Pathology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environmental and Rural ScienceUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural DevelopmentPatuakhali Science and Technology UniversityPatuakhaliBangladesh
  3. 3.Department of Agricultural EconomicsGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

Personalised recommendations