Food Security

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 1073–1088 | Cite as

Impact of climate-smart agriculture adoption on the food security of coastal farmers in Bangladesh

  • Md Kamrul HasanEmail author
  • Sam Desiere
  • Marijke D’Haese
  • Lalit Kumar
Original Paper


Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is a suggested pathway to the improvement of food security in a changing climate. The Department of Agricultural Extension under the Bangladesh Ministry of Agriculture has been promoting CSA with farmers through climate field schools since 2010. This study investigated the impact of adoption of CSA practices on the household food security of coastal farmers in southern Bangladesh. Factors determining household food security were also explored. Data were collected from 118 randomly selected farmers of Kalapara sub-district in Patuakhali, Bangladesh. We identified 17 CSA practices that were adopted by the farmers in the study area. Those practices were saline-tolerant crop varieties, flood-tolerant crop varieties, drought-resistant crop varieties, early maturing rice, vegetables in a floating bed, ‘sorjan’ method of farming, pond-side vegetable cultivation, the cultivation of watermelon, sunflower or plum, relay cropping, urea deep placement, organic fertilizer, mulching, use of pheromone trap, rain water harvesting and seed storage in plastic bags or glass bottles. The farmers adopted on average seven out of these CSA practices. Among the sampled households, 32% were assessed as food secure, 51% were mildly to moderately food insecure and 17% were severely food insecure. Adoption of CSA practices was positively associated with household food security in terms of per capita annual food expenditure (β = 1.48 Euro, p = 0.015). Households with a better educational level, farming as a major occupation, a larger pond size, greater number of cattle, higher household income, smaller family size and less difficulty with access to markets were likely to be more food secure. Increasing the adoption of CSA was important to enhance food security but not a sufficient condition since other characteristics of the farmers (personal education, pond size, cattle ownership and market difficulty) had large effects on food security. Nevertheless, increased adoption of saline-tolerant and flood-tolerant crop varieties, pond-side vegetable cultivation and rainwater harvesting for irrigation could further improve the food security of coastal farmers in southern Bangladesh.


Climate-smart agriculture Climate field school Adoption quotient Food security indicators Coastal farmers Southern Bangladesh 



This study was a part of the research conducted for the International Master of Science in Rural Development in Ghent University, Belgium, with financial support from the European Union and Ghent University. We are grateful to the farmers and other respondents who cordially provided necessary information for this research. We express our gratitude to the anonymous reviewers and the editors whose valuable suggestions were essential for this publication.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. and International Society for Plant Pathology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environmental and Rural ScienceUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural DevelopmentPatuakhali Science and Technology UniversityPatuakhaliBangladesh
  3. 3.Department of Agricultural EconomicsGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

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