Food Security

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 841–858 | Cite as

ScalA-FS: expert-based ex-ante assessments of local requirements and success potential of upgrading strategies for improving food security in rural Tanzania

  • Götz UckertEmail author
  • Frieder Graef
  • Anja Faße
  • Ludger Herrmann
  • Harry Hoffmann
  • Frederick C. Kahimba
  • Luitfred Kissoly
  • Hannes J. König
  • Christine Lambert
  • Henry Mahoo
  • Bashir Makoko
  • Leon Mrosso
  • Khamaldin D. Mutabazi
  • Lutengano Mwinuka
  • Meike P. Schäfer
  • Jana Schindler
  • Stefan Sieber
  • Elirehema Swai
  • Yusto M. Yustas
Original Paper


Enhancing food security is the main goal of subsistence farmers, who are vulnerable to food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa. Participatory research across food value chains (FVC) can help stabilize and enhance food security by developing upgrading strategies (UPS). However, prior to successful widespread adoption and geographical upscaling, such practices need in-depth understanding of their suitability in target areas and their particular local requirements. Ex-ante assessments of selected UPS were carried out by German and Tanzanian agricultural scientists using the “ScalA-FS” tool. The participating experts included those responsible for implementation. The tool aims to systematically evaluate, at the community level, UPS that have been successfully implemented elsewhere, evaluate their potential for dissemination, and identify entry points for adjustments during implementation. Assessment indicators were developed through a participatory process. UPS relate to a) natural resource management and crop production; b) food processing and bioenergy; c) income generation and market participation; and d) food consumption. Here we present the ScalA-FS assessment results on UPS suitability as well as on its implementation requirements. We focused on the local context needed to enable a productive collaboration between smallholder farmers and implementing research and/or development organizations. Implementation requirements for the selected UPS were assessed as generally low to medium, and projected suitability in most cases was high. Local knowledge and education (human capital) along with visible success after a short time were important criteria of success of UPS. Here, careful consideration of the challenges before and after implementation of UPS is suggested. ScalA-FS should be applied early in the implementation process of UPS in order to support adaptations and successful upscaling at other locations.


Ex-ante impact assessment Upgrading strategies ScalA-FS Food security Food value chain Tanzania 



This publication is a product of the project Trans-SEC ( The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) has funded and the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) has co-financed Trans-SEC. The views expressed are purely those of the authors and may not under any circumstances be regarded as stating an official position of the BMBF or BMZ. The Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF) financed FSA.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature and International Society for Plant Pathology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Götz Uckert
    • 1
    Email author
  • Frieder Graef
    • 1
  • Anja Faße
    • 2
  • Ludger Herrmann
    • 3
  • Harry Hoffmann
    • 1
  • Frederick C. Kahimba
    • 4
  • Luitfred Kissoly
    • 5
  • Hannes J. König
    • 1
  • Christine Lambert
    • 6
  • Henry Mahoo
    • 4
  • Bashir Makoko
    • 7
  • Leon Mrosso
    • 8
  • Khamaldin D. Mutabazi
    • 9
  • Lutengano Mwinuka
    • 9
  • Meike P. Schäfer
    • 1
  • Jana Schindler
    • 1
  • Stefan Sieber
    • 1
  • Elirehema Swai
    • 8
  • Yusto M. Yustas
    • 4
  1. 1.Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF)MünchebergGermany
  2. 2.TUM Campus Straubing of Biotechnology and SustainabilityWeihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied SciencesStraubingGermany
  3. 3.Institute of Soil Science and Land EvaluationUniversity of HohenheimStuttgartGermany
  4. 4.Department of Agricultural Engineering & Land planningSokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)MorogoroTanzania
  5. 5.Institute for Environmental Economics and World TradeLeibniz University HannoverHannoverGermany
  6. 6.Institute of Biological Chemistry and NutritionUniversity of HohenheimStuttgartGermany
  7. 7.Agricultural Research Institute (ARI)- IlongaKilosa-MorogoroTanzania
  8. 8.Agricultural Research Institute (ARI)- HomboloDodomaTanzania
  9. 9.Department of Agricultural Economics & AgribusinessSokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)MorogoroTanzania

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