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Food Security

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 925–938 | Cite as

Efficiency scenarios of charcoal production and consumption – a village case study from Western Tanzania

  • Harry HoffmannEmail author
  • Götz Uckert
  • Constance Rybak
  • Frieder Graef
  • Klas Sander
  • Stefan Sieber
Original Paper

Abstract

Availability and access to energy is strongly linked to food security as cooking is needed to make foods ready for consumption. Without access to energy, there is no food security. In rural Tanzania, the population strongly depends on traditional biofuels such as firewood and charcoal. Under the pressure of population growth, energy demand will substantially increase in the next decades. The potential of improved efficiency in charcoal production and efficient cooking stoves were evaluated using scenario analysis. For quantitative data collection, a household survey was conducted in Laela village (2010). The sampling process was based on relative income classes (ICs) defined by local representatives and extending  from “rich” (IC 1) to “below self-sufficiency” (IC 4). Based on quantitative survey data, we calculated the quantity of pre-carbonised fuelwood associated with charcoal consumption for ICs in order to display specific consumption patterns. Further, we applied scenario analysis and projected charcoal consumption by 2030 including population growth (+3.41%/year), improved kiln efficiencies (11.1%–20%) and different dissemination rates of efficient stoves (0%–100%). Results of consumption patterns showed that fuelwood consumption in IC 1 was twice that of IC 4, when a conversion efficiency of 11.1% was applied. Calculations of the scenario analyses showed that overall energy consumption will almost double by 2030. The combined approach of a moderate improvement of conversion efficiency (15.6%) combined with a dissemination rate for energy efficient stoves of 50% would overcome the effect of population growth in projected energy consumption and offer a means of coping with future bioenergy demands.

Keywords

Traditional biomass Charcoal Firewood Efficient stoves Tanzania Land use conflicts 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) as well as the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) for financing the projects Trans-SEC (http://www.trans-sec.org) and Better-iS (http://www.better-is.com/). This work was also financially supported by the German Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL) based on the decision of the Parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany through the Federal Office for Agriculture and Food (BLE). It is partly embedded in the Scale-N project (http://www.scale-n.org/). In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to the helpful and friendly people of Laela for their support during the research project.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12571_2018_786_Fig1_ESM.jpg (500 kb)
Annex 1 Charcoal kiln discovered in the hillside North-East of Laela (JPEG 500 kb)
12571_2018_786_Fig2_ESM.jpg (552 kb)
Annex 2 Highly efficient Casamance kiln observed in Ulaya Mbuyuni in 09/2014 (JPEG 552 kb)
12571_2018_786_Fig3_ESM.jpg (570 kb)
Annex 3 Barked tree to dry wood before processing to charcoal (JPEG 569 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature and International Society for Plant Pathology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry Hoffmann
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Götz Uckert
    • 1
    • 2
  • Constance Rybak
    • 1
    • 2
  • Frieder Graef
    • 2
  • Klas Sander
    • 3
  • Stefan Sieber
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF)Institute of Socio-EconomicsMünchebergGermany
  2. 2.Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF)MünchebergGermany
  3. 3.The World BankWashingtonUSA

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