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Congenital diaphragmatic eventration with absent left phrenic nerve in the fetal pig

  • Shin-ichi SekiyaEmail author
  • Honami Oota
  • Yukari Maruyama
  • Mitsuo Sakaihara
  • Yoko Takashima
Case Report
  • 7 Downloads

Abstract

We encountered a fetal pig with eventration of the diaphragm and pulmonary hypoplasia accompanied by phrenic nerve agenesis. The fetal pig was female measuring 34 cm in crown-rump length and about 1500 g in body weight. The diaphragm was a complete continuous sheet, but comprised a translucent membrane with residual muscular tissue only at the dorsolateral area of the right leaf of the diaphragm. The left leaf protruded extraordinarily toward the thoracic cavity. The left phrenic nerve was completely absent, while there was a slight remnant of the right phrenic nerve that supplied the dorsolateral muscular area of the right leaf. Both lungs were small, and the number of smaller bronchioles arising from the bronchioles was decreased to about half of that of the normal lung. Additionally, the right and left subclavius muscles and nerves could not be identified. These findings imply that the diaphragm, the subclavius muscle and nerves innervating them comprise a developmental module, which would secondarily affect lung development. It is considered that the present case is analogous to the animal model of congenital eventration of the diaphragm in humans.

Keywords

Bronchial tree Diaphragm Sihler’s stain Subclavian nerve Subclavius muscle 

Abbreviations

AC

Arcus costalis

ACC

A. carotis communis

AID

Aa. intercostales dorsales

Ap

Aponeurosis

APa

A. phrenica caudalis

ASb

A. subclavia

AT

Aorta thoracica

ATI

A. thoracica interna

Ax

N. axillaris

Cb

M. cleidobrachialis

CD

Crus dextrum

Cm

M. cleidocephalicus Pars mastoidea (M. cleidomastoideus)

Co

M. cleidocephalicus Pars occipitalis (M. cleidooccipitalis)

CS

Crus sinistrum

DL

M. deltoideus

DT

Ductus thoracicus

GM

Gl. mandibularis

HA

Hiatus aorticus

HE

Hiatus esophageus

IC

N. intercostalis

Is

M. infraspinatus

LA

Lobus accessorius

LCa

Lobus caudalis

LCr

Lobus cranialis

Ld

M. latissimus dorsi

LM

Lobus medius

M

N. medianus

MC

N. musculocutaneus

MSb

M. subclavius

NSb

N. subclavius

Ph

N. phrenicus

Pp

M. pectolaris profundus

PP

Muscular branch to M. pectoralis profundus

Ps

M. pectolaris superficialis

PS

Muscular branch to M. pectoralis superficialis

R

N. radialis

S

Sternum

SB

N. subscapularis

Sb

M. subscapularis

SC

Nn. supraclaviculares

Sd

M. scalenus dorsalis

Sh

M. sternohyoideus

Sm

M. sternocephalicus Pars mastoidea (M. sternomastoideus)

SS

N. suprascapularis

Ss

M. supraspinatus

St

M. sternothyroideus

Sv

M. scalenus ventralis

SVC

Muscular branch to M. serratus ventralis cervicis

TB

Truncus brachiocephalicus

Tb-lat

M. triceps brachii Caput laterale

Tb-long

M. triceps brachii Caput longum

TD

N. thoracodorsalis

TLa

N. thoracicus lateralis

TLo

N. thoracicus longus

TS

Truncus sympathicus

Tz

M. trapezius

U

N. ulnaris

VA

V. azygos

VCa

V. cava caudalis

VCr

V. cava cranialis

VJE

V. jugularis externa

X

N. vagus

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Prof. Noboru Sato (Niigata University) for valuable advices and Assoc. Prof. Hiroshi Nagashima (Niigata University) for critical reading of the manuscript. We are thankful to Dr. Masanori Nakae (National Museum of Nature and Science) for useful information about the Sihler’s stain technique.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Japanese Association of Anatomists 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of NursingNiigata College of NursingJoetsuJapan
  2. 2.Niigata Prefectural Myoko HospitalNiigataJapan
  3. 3.Tachikawa General Hospital, Tachikawa Medical CenterTachikawaJapan
  4. 4.Faculty of NursingNiigata University of Health and WelfareNiigataJapan

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