Advertisement

Anatomical Science International

, Volume 94, Issue 4, pp 280–284 | Cite as

Influence of phase of respiration on thoracic conformation at multiple vertebral levels in German shepherd dog

  • Marwa H. Hassan
  • Elham A. HassanEmail author
  • Faisal A. Torad
Original Article
  • 88 Downloads

Abstract

This study aimed to objectively assess the influence of phase of respiration on thoracic conformation at different vertebral levels. An observational prospective study was done on 30 German shepherd dogs. Thoracic radiographs were obtained at peak inspiration and expiration; thoracic depth and width were measured at each vertebral level. The change in thoracic dimensions, and the frontosagittal and vertebral indices were calculated at each level. The level of the 10th thoracic segment was the deepest and widest level of the thorax. At the first three thoracic segments, the percentage change of thoracic depth ranged from 3.2 ± 3.0 to 5.1 ± 3.9 % and 4.2 ± 2.8 to 6.6 ± 4.9 % for thoracic width. At the 4th–9th thoracic segments, this change increased to 13.3 ± 5.0 to 19.3 ± 3.8 % in thoracic depth and 13.9 ± 6.2 to 18.8 ± 8.2 % in thoracic width. The percentage change in thoracic width was significantly greater than thoracic depth at the level of the 6th and 7th thoracic segments (P = 0.027, 0.019). Phase of respiration had an influence on thoracic conformation objectively evaluated at multiple vertebral levels.

Keywords

Conformation Dog Radiograph Respiration Thorax 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was carried out on the Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University without any financial assistance.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests. The research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sector.

References

  1. Albertal M, Vallejos J, Bellia G et al (2011) Changes in chest compression indexes with breathing underestimate surgical candidacy in patients with pectus excavatum: a computed tomography pilot study. J Pediatr Surg 48:2011–2016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Archer JE, Gardner A, Berryman F, Pynsent P (2016) The measurement of the normal thorax using the Haller index methodology at multiple vertebral levels. J Anat 229:577–581CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Ayer MH (2000) Small animal radiographic techniques and positioning. Wiley-Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  4. Berry CR (2010) Interpreting small animal thoracic radiographs. Procedures. Pro/NAVC Clinician’s Brief 65–70Google Scholar
  5. Birkemeier KL, Podberesky DJ, Salisbury S, Seraim S (2011) Breathe in… breathe out… stop breathing: does phase of respiration affect the Haller index in patients with pectus excavatum? Am J Roentgenol 197:934–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Budras K, Mc Carthy PH, Horowitz A, Berg R (2007) Anatomy of the dog, 5th edn. Schlütersche Verlagsgesellschaft & Co.KG, HannoverGoogle Scholar
  7. Cho S, Hong S, Chung Y, Kim O (2012) Radiological assessment of pectus excavatum in a Pekingese dog. Korean J Vet Serv 35:251–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fossum TW (2012) Surgery of the lower respiratory system. In: Fossum TW (ed) Small animal surgery, 4th edn. Mosby, St Louis, pp 958–990Google Scholar
  9. Fossum TW, Boudrieau RJ, Hobson HP (1989) Pectus excavatum in eight dogs and six cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assosc 25:595–605Google Scholar
  10. Glickman L, Emerick T, Glickman N et al (1996) Radiological assessment of the relationship between thoracic conformation and the risk of gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 37:174–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Haller JA Jr, Kramer SS, Lietman SA (1987) Use of CT scans in selection of patients for pectus excavatum surgery: a preliminary report. J Pediatr Surg 22:904–906CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Haller JA Jr, Scherer LR, Turner CS, Colombani PM (1989) Evolving management of pectus excavatum based on a single institutional experience of 664 patients. Ann Surg 209:578–582CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Hassan EA, Hassan MH, Torad FA (2018) Correlation between clinical severity and type and degree of pectus excavatum in twelve brachycephalic dogs. J Vet Med Sci 80:766–771CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Kirberger RM, Dvir E, van der Merwe LL (2009) The effect of positioning on the radiographic appearance of caudodorsal mediastinal masses in the dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 50:630–634CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Lamb CR, Wikeley H, Boswood A, Pfeiffer DU (2001) Use of breed-specific ranges for the vertebral heart scale as an aid to the radiographic diagnosis of cardiac disease in dogs. Vet Rec 148:707–711CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Robinson NE, Gillespie JR, Berry JD, Simpson A (1972) Lung compliance, lung volume, and single breath diffusing capacities in dogs. J Appl Physiol 33:808–812CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Silverman S, Suter PF (1975) Influence of inspiration and expiration on canine thoracic radiographs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 166:502–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Thrall DE (2013) Principles of radiographic interpretation of the thorax. In: Thrall DE (ed) Textbook of veterinary diagnostic radiology, 6th edn. Elsevier Saunders, Atlanta, pp 473–487Google Scholar
  19. Torad FA, Hassan EA (2014) Two-dimensional cardiothoracic ratio for evaluation of cardiac size in German shepherd dogs. J Vet Cardiol 16:237–244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japanese Association of Anatomists 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineCairo UniversityGizaEgypt

Personalised recommendations