Advertisement

The morphology and origin of the skeletal muscle bundles associated with the human mustache

Abstract

The arrector pili muscle is a smooth muscle bundle that attaches to the bulge region of the hair follicle and extends to its superior attachment in the upper dermis or epidermis. However, the morphology and origin of the muscle associated with the human mustache is different, having a general smooth arrector pili muscle. The purpose of the present study was to identify the morphology of the muscle associated with the human mustache using three-dimensional reconstruction. The skin of the superior part of the upper lip region from human cadavers were fixed, processed using routine histological methods, serially sectioned at a thickness of 10 μm, and then stained with Masson’s trichrome. The serial sections were reconstructed three-dimensionally using ‘Reconstruct’ software. The present study confirmed skeletal muscle fibers in this area, but they did not attach to the follicle of the human mustache. Although the follicle of the mustache was surrounded with some muscle fibers, they just ran obliquely to the skin surface from the deeper orbicularis oris muscle regardless of the follicle. There was no muscle associated with the human mustache. The voluntary or involuntary mobility of the human mustache has been lost evolutionally forever.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2a,b
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Dorfl J (1985) The musculature of the mystacial vibrissae of the white mouse. J Anat 135:147–154

  2. Fiala JC (2005) Reconstruct: a free editor for serial section microscopy. J Microsc 218:52–61

  3. Flotte TJ (2008) Transverse sectioning of the scalp (Headington technique) in the 19th century. J Cutan Pathol 35:82–85

  4. Headington JT (1984) Transverse microscopic anatomy of the human scalp: a basis for a morphometric approach to disorders of the hair follicle. Arch Dermatol 120:449–456

  5. Kim JN, Koh KS, Lee E, Park SC, Song WC (2011) The morphology of the rat vibrissal follicle-sinus complex revealed by three-dimensional computer-aided reconstruction. Cells Tissues Organs 193:207–214

  6. Song WC, Hu KS, Koh KS (2005) Multiunit arrector pili muscular structure as a variation observed by using computer-based three-dimensional reconstruction. Cell Tissue Res 322:335–337

  7. Song WC, Hwang WJ, Shin C, Koh KS (2006) A new model for the morphology of the arrector pili muscle in the follicular unit based on three-dimensional reconstruction. J Anat 208:643–648

  8. Song WC, Hu KS, Kim HJ, Koh KS (2007) A study of the secretion mechanism of the sebaceous gland using three-dimensional reconstruction to examine the morphological relationship between the sebaceous gland and the arrector pili muscle in the follicular unit. Br J Dermatol 157:325–330

  9. Tamatsu Y, Tsukahara K, Hotta M, Shimada K (2007) Vestiges of vibrissal capsular muscles exist in the human upper lip. Clin Anat 20:628–631

  10. Wineski LE (1985) Facial morphology and vibrissal movement in the golden hamster. J Morphol 183:199–217

Download references

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by a Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. R01-2008-000-10189-0).

Conflict of interest

None.

Author information

Correspondence to Wu-Chul Song.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material (AVI 3088 kb)

Supplementary material (AVI 3088 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kim, J., Lee, J., Yoo, J. et al. The morphology and origin of the skeletal muscle bundles associated with the human mustache. Anat Sci Int 87, 132–135 (2012) doi:10.1007/s12565-012-0133-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Arrector pili muscle
  • Hair follicle
  • Mobility
  • Mustache
  • Superior lip