Photosynthetic bacteria enhanced water quality and integrity of microbial community composition of integrated multitrophic aquaculture system of milkfish Chanos chanos coastal farming

  • Chingwen YingEmail author
  • Man-Jung Chang
  • Yi-Tang Chang
  • Wei-Liang Chao
  • Shinn-Lih Yeh
  • Jih-Tay Hsu
Original Article Aquaculture


Aquaculture faces substantial challenges in mitigating the detrimental environmental impacts of intensive farming. Traditional methods have given rise to serious concerns, leading to the search for alternative approaches using probiotics. An indigenously isolated photosynthetic purple bacterium, Rhodovulum sulfidophilum, was introduced into a marine integrated multitrophic aquaculture system cultivating Chanos chanos in southwestern Taiwan. The effects of R. sulfidophilum on water quality parameters, the relative levels of nitrogenase-encoding nifH and nitrous oxide reductase-encoding nosZ genes, the occurrence of sulfonamide resistance, the presence of sulfonamide resistance genes, and microbial community structure were determined. Supplementation with R. sulfidophilum decreased the chemical oxygen demand, the nitrate levels, and the occurrence of sulfonamide-resistant bacteria in the fishpond water compared with that of the control after rearing. The level of the sulfonamide resistance gene sul2 decreased in R. sulfidophilum-supplemented water samples, while the control exhibited an elevated level of sul2 after rearing. Supplementation with R. sulfidophilum also maintained the integrity of the bacterial community structure. In conclusion, our results suggest that R. sulfidophilum is an attractive supplement for enhanced disease emergence control, microbial biodiversity maintenance, and sustainable marine aquaculture practice.


Chanos chanos Microbial composition Antibiotic resistance Water quality Photosynthetic bacteria 



The authors would like to thank Chia-Hsin Hu (Soochow University, Taiwan) and Dr. Su-Jung Chang (COA, Taiwan) for their assistance in sampling. Our gratitude also goes to Ya-Chen Lin (Soochow University, Taiwan) for her excellent artwork in the schematic illustration.


This work was funded in part by the National Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Republic of China (MOST 106-2632-B-031-001, MOST 105-2632-B-031-001).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.

Supplementary material

12562_2019_1387_MOESM1_ESM.docx (912 kb)
Supplementary file1 (DOCX 911 kb)


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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Fisheries Science 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chingwen Ying
    • 1
    Email author
  • Man-Jung Chang
    • 1
  • Yi-Tang Chang
    • 1
  • Wei-Liang Chao
    • 1
  • Shinn-Lih Yeh
    • 2
  • Jih-Tay Hsu
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologySoochow UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Mariculture Research Center, Fisheries Research InstituteCouncil of AgricultureTainanTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Animal SciencesNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

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