Sex discrimination of cultured greater amberjack Seriola dumerili using steroid hormones
The aquaculture of greater amberjack Seriola dumerili is of considerable research interest worldwide. The larviculture methods employed to culture this species, however, are still under development, and the majority of farms still rely on wild-caught juveniles. One of the problems associated with the hatchery production of this species is the optimal selection of broodstock to ensure a stable supply of high-quality eggs. Specifically, no reliable low-stress sex-discrimination technique is currently available for selecting broodstock of this species. This study investigated the efficacy of a hormone-based sex-discrimination method in full-cycle cultured S. dumerili, ranging in age from 412 to 1150 days after hatching (DAH). Plasma concentrations of the female hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) and the male hormone 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) were measured in both spawning and non-spawning seasons, and the optimal threshold levels for sex discrimination were estimated using a receiver operating characteristic curve. Sex discrimination using E2 produced several false positives in younger fish, and had an overall accuracy of 78.7%. However, sex discrimination using 11-KT had an accuracy of 96.7%, even in 412 DAH fish. This study demonstrated that sex discrimination using 11-KT is a reliable method for optimizing the sex ratio of S. dumerili broodstock, even before the broodstock mature.
Keywords11-Ketotestosterone 17β-estradiol Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Broodstock selection Sex ratio
We thank the staff of the Aquaculture Research Institute at Kindai University for their cooperation and guidance in conducting this research. The authors would also like to thank the staff of the Kindai University Aquaculture Seedling Center for providing the fish used in the experiments.
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