Advertisement

Optimum feeding frequency for juvenile short barbeled velvetchin Hapalogenys nigripinnis reared in floating sea cages

  • Sung-Yong Oh
  • B. A. Venmathi Maran
  • Jin Woo ParkEmail author
Original Article Aquaculture

Abstract

A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding frequency on growth, food consumption, body composition, and hematological responses of juvenile short barbeled velvetchin reared in floating sea cages. Fish (mean body weight of 28.8 g) were hand-fed to apparent satiety using a commercial diet (49.0% protein) at four different feeding frequencies (from one to four meals daily). Weight gain, specific growth rate, and feeding rates in fish fed three and four meals daily were significantly higher than those of fish fed one or two meals daily. The feed efficiency and inter-individual size variation were not significantly affected by feeding frequency. The highest feed intake of fish occurred at the first meal each day. The crude lipid content of fish fed three and four meals daily was significantly higher than that of fish fed one or two meals daily. The blood plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase contents in fish fed one meal per day were significantly higher than those in fish fed at other frequencies. Our results suggest that the optimum feeding frequency for juvenile short barbeled velvetchin weighing 30–150 g and reared in sea cages is three meals daily.

Keywords

Aquaculture Growth performance Feed strategy Fish physiology Fish nutrient 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported in part by the Development of Technology for Mass Production of Useful Marine Bioproducts project (KIOST project no. PE99722), funded by the Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, and the Technology Development of Long-term Environmental Monitoring System and the Safety Standards of Maritime Activities to Solve Environmental and Safety Issues due to the Offshore Wind Farm program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Republic of Korea (nos. 20163010024660, PN67590).

References

  1. An HS, Kang HW, Han HS, Park JY, Hong CG, Park J, Myeong JI, An CM (2014) Genetic differences between the wild and hatchery-produced populations of Korean short barbeled grunter (Hapalogenys nitens) determined with microsatellite markers. Genet Mol Res 13(4):8901–8912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews JW, Page JW (1975) The effects of frequency of feeding on culture of catfish. Trans Am Fish Soc 104(2):317–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AOAC (1990) Official methods of analysis, vol 15. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington.  https://doi.org/10.12691/jfnr-2-4-9 Google Scholar
  4. Baloi M, de Carvalho CVA, Sterzelecki FC, Passini G, Cerqueira V (2016) Effects of feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and body composition of juvenile Brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindacher 1879). Aquac Res 47(2):554–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biswas G, Jena JK, Singh SK, Patmajhi P, Muduli HK (2006) Effect of feeding frequency on growth, survival and feed utilization in mrigal, Cirrhinus mrigala, and rohu, Labeo rohita, during nursery rearing. Aquaculture 254(1–4):211–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biswas G, Thirunavukkarasu AR, Sundaray JK, Kailasam M (2010) Optimization of feeding frequency of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) fry reared in net cages under brackish water environment. Aquaculture 305(1–4):26–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Booth MA, Tucker BJ, Allan GL, Allan GL, Fielder DS (2008) Effect of feeding regime and fish size on weight gain, feed intake and gastric evacuation in juvenile Australian snapper Pagrus auratus. Aquaculture 282(1–4):104–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buurma BJ, Diana JS (1994) Effects of feeding frequency and handling on growth and mortality of cultured walking catfish Clarias fuscus. J World Aquac Soc 25(2):175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cho SH, Lim YS, Lee JH, Lee JK, Park S, Lee S-M (2003) Effects of feeding rate and feeding frequency on survival, growth, and body composition of Ayu post-larvae Plecoglossus altivelis. J World Aquac Soc 34(1):85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dada AA, Fagbenro OA, Fasakin EA (2002) Determination of optimum feeding frequency for Heterobranchus bidorsalis fry in outdoor concrete tanks. J Aquac Trop 17(3):167–174Google Scholar
  11. Dwyer KS, Brown JA, Parrish C, Lall SP (2002) Feeding frequency affects food consumption, feeding pattern and growth of juvenile yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea). Aquaculture 213(1–4):279–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Guo Z, Cui J, Li M, Liu H, Zhang M, Meng F, Shi G, Wang R, He X, Zhao Y (2018) Effect of feeding frequency on growth performance, antioxidant status, immune response and resistance to hypoxia stress challenge on juvenile dolly varden char Salvelinus malma. Aquaculture 486:197–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jarboe HH, Grant WJ (1996) Effects of feeding time and frequency on growth of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus in closed recirculatory raceway systems. J World Aquac Soc 27(2):235–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jobling M (1982) Some observations on the effects of feeding frequency on the food intake and growth of plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L. J Fish Biol 20(4):431–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kang HW, Jun JC, Kang DY, Jo KC (2009) Influence of low salinity and cold water temperature on the hatching, survival and growth of the offspring of grunt, Hapalogenys nitens. Kor J Ichthyol 21(3):158–166Google Scholar
  16. Kang HW, Cho JK, Son MH, Park JY, Hong CG, Chung JS, Chung EY (2015) Gonadal development, spawning and plasma sex steroid levels of the indoor cultured grunt, Hapalogenys nitens. Dev Reprod 19(1):33–41.  https://doi.org/10.12717/devrep.2015.19.1.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kayano Y, Yao S, Yamamoto S, Nakagawa H (1993) Effects of feeding frequency on the growth and body constituents of young red-spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara. Aquaculture 110(3–4):271–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Küçük E, Aydin İ, Polat H, Eroldoğan OT, Şahin T (2014) Effect of feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and nutrient utilization of juvenile flounder (Platichthys flesus Iuscus). Aquac Int 22(2):723–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee SM, Pham MA (2010) Effects of feeding frequency and feed type on the growth, feed utilization and body composition of juvenile olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Aquac Res 41(9):166–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lee SM, Hwang UG, Cho SH (2000) Effects of feeding frequency and dietary moisture content on growth, body composition and gastric evacuation of juvenile Korean rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli). Aquaculture 187(3–4):399–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li J, Zhang JQ, Ou YJ, Zhang JS, Liu Z, Liao R et al (2007) Study on the growth performance of skewband grunt Hapalogenys nitens in sea gulf net cage. South China Fish Sci 3(4):1–6Google Scholar
  22. Li XF, Tian HY, Zhang DD, Jiang GZ, Liu WB (2014) Feeding frequency affects stress, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish Shellfish Immunol 38(1):80–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu FG, Liao IC (1999) Effect of feeding regimen on the food consumption, growth, and body composition in hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis × M chrysops. Fish Sci 65(4):513–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lupatsch I, Kissil GW, Sklan D (2003) Comparison of energy and protein efficiency among three fish species gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and white grouper (Epinephelus aeneus): energy expenditure for protein and lipid deposition. Aquaculture 225(1–4):175–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mizanur RM, Bai SC (2014) The optimum feeding frequency in growing Korean rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) rearing at the temperature of 15 °C and 19 °C. Asian Australas J Anim Sci 27(9):1319–1327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mizanur RM, Park G, Yun HH, Lee S, Choi S, Bai SC (2014) The effects of feeding rates in juvenile Korean rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) reared at 17 °C and 20 °C water temperatures. Aqauc Int 22(3):1121–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. National Fisheries and Development Institute (NFRDI) (2004) Commercial fishes of the coastal and offshore waters in Korea. NFRDI, Busan. http://www.riss.kr/link?id=M9553498
  28. Oh SY, Venmathi Maran BA (2015) Feeding frequency influences growth, feed consumption and body composition of juvenile rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus). Aquac Int 23(1):175–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ruohonen K, Grove DJ (1996) Gastrointestinal responses of rainbow trout to dry pellet and low-fat herring diets. J Fish Biol 49(3):501–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schnaittacher G, King W, Berlinsky DL (2005) The effects of feeding frequency on growth of juvenile Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus L. Aquac Res 36(4):370–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Silva CR, Gomes LC, Brandão FR (2007) Effect of feeding rate and frequency on tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) growth, production and feeding costs during the first growth phase in cages. Aquaculture 264(1–4):135–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sunde LM, Imsland AK, Folkvord A, Stefansson SO (1998) Effects of size grading on growth and survival of juvenile turbot at two temperatures. Aquac Int 6:19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tucker BJ, Booth MA, Allan GL, Booth D, Fielder D (2006) Effects of photoperiod and feeding frequency on performance of newly weaned Australian snapper Pagrus auratus. Aquaculture 258(1–4):514–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang N, Hayward RS, Noltie DB (1998) Effect of feeding frequency on food consumption, growth, size variation, and feeding pattern of age-0 hybrid sunfish. Aquaculture 165(3–4):261–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang Y, Kong LJ, Li K, Bureau DP (2007) Effects of feeding frequency and ration level on growth, feed utilization and nitrogen waste output of cuneate drum (Nibea miichthioides) reared in net pens. Aquaculture 271(1–4):350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang N, Xu X, Kestemont P (2009) Effect of temperature and feeding frequency on growth performances, feed efficiency and body composition of pikeperch juveniles (Sander lucioperca). Aquaculture 289(1–2):70–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Webster CD, Tidwell JH, Yancey DH (1992) Effect of protein level and feeding frequency on growth and body composition of cage-reared channel catfish. Prog Fish Cult 54(2):92–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Xie F, Ai Q, Mai K, Xu W, Ma H (2011) The optimal feeding frequency of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea, Richardson) larvae. Aquaculture 311(1–4):162–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhang Y, Hu J, Xie Y, Zhong Y, Huang C (2003) Effects of diets on growth and survival rates of artificially-produced juveniles of Hapalogenys nitens. Mar Sci 27(1):30–33Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Fisheries Science 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Marine Bio-Resources Research UnitKorea Institute of Ocean Science & TechnologyBusanRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Marine BiologyKorea University of Science and TechnologyDaejonRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Borneo Marine Research InstituteUniversity Malaysia SabahKota KinabaluMalaysia

Personalised recommendations