Fisheries Science

, Volume 84, Issue 6, pp 995–1008 | Cite as

Trophic-level modelling of the coastal waters of the northern Bay of Bengal, West Bengal, India

  • Isha DasEmail author
  • Sugata Hazra
  • Sourav Das
  • Sandip Giri
  • Abhra Chanda
  • Sourav Maity
  • Shubhadeep Ghosh
Original Article Biology


An ecosystem model was constructed for the northern Bay of Bengal (nBoB) using Ecopath (version 6.4.4). The model covered an area of 18,500 km2. There were 32 functional groups in the model including the non-living group, detritus. Trophic levels (TLs) for individual groups ranged from 1.0 to 4.22. Ecotrophic efficiency for most of the small pelagic fishes was found to be greater than 0.7. For hilsa it was 0.853, indicating high exploitation of this fish within the system. The nBoB was estimated to be a low ascendancy area (~ 19.2%) with a system overhead of 80.8%, which indicates system stability and a certain maturity. The total system throughput and the total primary production/total respiration estimated for the study area indicate that nBoB is a maturing ecosystem. The mean TL of the catch for the study area was 3.115. The results indicate that the nBoB system is still in a developing stage. The low mean TL of the catch indicates fishing practices targeting fish of lower TLs in the system. In the long run, this may cause fishing down the food web, which will eventually lead to declining catches. These results indicate that present fishing practices are unsustainable for the nBoB ecosystem.


Trophic models Ecopath Ecosystem maturity Network analysis Unsustainable fishing 



The authors are grateful to Drs K. Sunil Mohamed and E. Vivekanandan of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI), Kochin for their invaluable suggestions. We owe our gratitude to CMFRI, Visakhapatnam, for providing us with the marine fish catch data of West Bengal. This work was financially supported by the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (F&A, XII, A1:031), Hyderabad, India, through the Bio Optical Studies and Ecological Modelling in Case—II Water of West Bengal Coast towards Hilsa Fishery Forecast project, for which we are thankful to the Director of INCOIS. The authors also thank the fishermen of Frazerganj and Digha for their selfless cooperation.

Supplementary material

12562_2018_1246_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 1169 kb)


  1. Abdurahiman KP, Zacharia PU, Nayak TH, Mohamed KS (2006) Diet and trophic ecology of silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen, 1788) exploited from the Southeast Arabian Sea. J Mar Biol Assoc India 48(2):206–212Google Scholar
  2. Abdussamad EM, Pillai NGK, Zacharia PU, Jayabalan K (2011a) Dorab fishery of Gulf of Mannar waters and population characteristics of the species Chirocentrus dorab (Forsskal, 1775) and Chirocentrus nudus (Swainson, 1839). Indian J Fish 58(1):19–23Google Scholar
  3. Akhand A, Chanda A, Dutta S, Hazra S (2012) Air-water carbon dioxide exchange dynamics along the outer estuarine transition zone of Sundarbans, northern Bay of Bengal, India. Indian J Mar Sci 41(2):111–116Google Scholar
  4. Allen RR (1971) Relation between production and biomass. J Fish Res Board Can 28(10):1573–1581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amin SN, Zafar M (2004) Studies on age, growth and virtual population analysis of Coilia dussumieri from the neritic water of Bangladesh. J Biol Sci 4(3):342–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amin SN, Arshad A, Siraj SS, Sidik BJ (2009) Population structure, growth, mortality and yield per recruit of sergestid shrimp, Acetes japonicus (Decapoda: Sergestidae) from the coastal waters of Malacca, Peninsular Malaysia. Indian J Mar Sci 38(1):57–68Google Scholar
  7. Aydin K (2002) The eastern Bering sea. In: Pitcher T, Cochrane K (eds) The use of ecosystem models to investigate multispecies management strategies for capture fisheries. Fisheries Centre Research Reports vol 10. Issue 2, pp 33–38Google Scholar
  8. Baird D, Ulanowicz RE (1993) Comparative study on the trophic structure, cycling and ecosystem properties of four tidal estuaries. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 99(3):221–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baskar S, Narasimhan N, Swamidass DG, Ravichelvan R, Sukumaran M, Anandaraj T (2012) Food and feeding habits of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) from Mallipattinam coast in Thanjavur Dist, Tamil Nadu, India. Int J Res Biol Sci 3(1):1–4Google Scholar
  10. Basu NC, Pakrasi BB (1979) Brackishwater fish and prawn seed potentialities of Bakkhali area in lower Sundarbans, West Bengal. J Inland Fish Soc 2:40–48Google Scholar
  11. Béné C, Mc Fadayen G, Allison E (2005) Increasing the contribution of small-scale fisheries to poverty alleviation and food security. FAO technical guidelines for responsible fisheries. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  12. Blanc A, Du Sel GP, Daguzan J (1998) Habitat and diet of early stages of Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda) in Morbihan Bay, France. J Mollusc Stud 64(3):263–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brando VE, Ceccarelli R, Libralato S, Ravagnan G (2004) Assessment of environmental management effects in a shallow water basin using mass-balance models. Ecol Model 172(2):213–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Campos WL (2003) An ecosystem model of San Pedro Bay, Leyte, Philippines: initial parameter estimates. Assess Manage Future Dir Coast Fish Asian Countries 8:353–364352Google Scholar
  15. Christensen V (2000) Indicators for marine ecosystems affected by fisheries. Mar Freshwater Res 51(5):447–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Christensen V, Walters CJ, Pauly D (2000) Ecopath with Ecosim: a user’s guide. Fisheries Center, University of British Columbia, Research Report Series, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  17. Christensen V, Walter CJ, Pauly D (2005) Ecopath with Ecosim: a user’s guide. Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, p 154Google Scholar
  18. Christensen V, Walters C, Pauly D, Forrest R (2008) Ecopath with Ecosim version 6 user guide: lenfest ocean futures project. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, pp 1–235Google Scholar
  19. Das I, Hazra S, Bhattacharya SB, Das S, Giri S (2016) A study on seasonal change in feeding habit, health status and reproductive biology of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta, Cuvier) in coastal water of West Bengal. India J Mar Sci 45(2):254–260Google Scholar
  20. Das S, Giri S, Das I, Chanda A, Ghosh A, Mukhopadhyay A, Akhand A, Choudhury SB, Dadhwal VK, Maity S, Kumar TS (2017) Nutrient dynamics of northern Bay of Bengal (nBoB)—emphasizing the role of tides. Reg Stud Mar Sci 10:116–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. De TK, De M, Das S, Chowdhury C, Ray R, Jana TK (2011) Phytoplankton abundance in relation to cultural eutrophication at the land-ocean boundary of Sundarbanss, NE coast of Bay of Bengal, India. J Environ Stud Sci 1(3):169–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Devaraj M (1998) Food and feeding habits of the spotted seer, Scomberomorus guttatus (Bloch and Schneider), in the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay. J Mar Biol Assoc India 40(1–2):105–124Google Scholar
  23. DoF (2015) Handbook of fisheries statistics 2014–2015. West Bengal Fisheries Department, Government of West Bengal, DoF, KolkataGoogle Scholar
  24. Du Sel GP, Blanc A, Daguzan J (2000) The diet of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) during its life cycle in the Northern Bay of Biscay (France). Aquat Sci 62(2):167–178Google Scholar
  25. Duan LJ, Li SY, Liu Y, Moreau J, Christensen V (2009) Modeling changes in the coastal ecosystem of the pearl river estuary from 1981 to 1998. Ecol Model 220(20):2802–2818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dutta S, Maity S, Bhattacharyya SB, Sundaray JK, Hazra S (2014) Diet composition and intensity of feeding of Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822) occurring in the northern Bay of Bengal, India. Proc Zool Soc 67(1):33–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dutta S, Chakraborty K, Hazra S (2017) Ecosystem structure and trophic dynamics of an exploited ecosystem of Bay of Bengal, Sundarbans Estuary, India. Fish Sci 83(2):145–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Edgar GJ (1990) Predator-prey interactions in seagrass beds. II. Distribution and diet of the blue manna crab Portunus pelagicus, Linnaeus at Cliff Head, Western Australia. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 139(1–2):23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. FAO (2007) The state of world fisheries and aquaculture—2006. FAO, Rome, p 162Google Scholar
  30. Fetahi T, Mengistou S (2007) Trophic analysis of lake Awassa (Ethiopia) using mass-balance Ecopath model. Ecol Model 201(3):398–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fofandi MD (2011) Observations on food and feeding habits of lizardfish (Saurida tumbil) landed along Veraval coast. J Fish Int 6:31–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Frisk MG, Miller TJ, Latour RJ, Martell SJD (2011) Assessing biomass gains from marsh restoration in Delaware Bay using ecopath with ecosim. Ecol Model 222(1):190–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Garces LR, Alias M, Abu Talib A, Mohamad-Norizam M, Silvestre GT (2003) A trophic model of the coastal fisheries ecosystem off the West Coast of Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia. In: Silvestre et al. (eds) Assessment, management and future directions for coastal fisheries in Asian countries. World Fish Center Conference Proceedings, Malaysia, pp 333–352Google Scholar
  34. Gasalla MA, Rossi-Wongtschowski CLDB (2004) Contribution of ecosystem analysis to investigating the effects of changes in fishing strategies in the South Brazil Bight coastal ecosystem. Ecol Model 172(2):283–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Geers TM, Pikitch EK, Frisk MG (2014) An original model of the northern Gulf of Mexico using ecopath with Ecosim and its implications for the effects of fishing on ecosystem structure and maturity. Deep Sea Res Part II 129:319–331. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gerlach SA (1971) On the importance of marine meiofauna for benthos communities. Oecologia 6(2):176–190CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Ghosh S (2014) Fishery, reproductive biology and diet characteristics of Bombay duck Harpadon nehereus from the Saurashtra coast. Indian J Mar Sci 43(3):418–426Google Scholar
  38. Ghosh S, Hanumantha Rao MV, Rohit P, Rammohan K, Maheswarudu G (2014) Reproductive biology, trophodynamics and stock structure of ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus from northern Arabian sea and northern Bay of Bengal. Indian J Mar Sci 43(3):755–771Google Scholar
  39. Gill AE (1982) Atmosphere ocean dynamics. Academic, New York, pp 326–408Google Scholar
  40. Govt. of India (2011) Population census 2011. Primary census abstract, Purba Medinipur and South Twenty Four Parganas, West BengalGoogle Scholar
  41. Guenette S (2014) An exploratory ecosystem model of the Bay of Bengal Large Marine Ecosystem. BOBLME, Phuket, Thailand, p 69Google Scholar
  42. Guerra ANGEL (2006) Ecology of Sepia officinalis. Vie Milieu 56(2):97–107Google Scholar
  43. Gulland JA (1971) The fish resources of the oceans. Fishing, West Byfleet, SurreyGoogle Scholar
  44. Gurney LJ, Pakhomov EA, Christensen V (2014) An ecosystem model of the prince Edward Island archipelago. Ecol Model 294:117–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Heymans JJ, Coll M, Link JS, Mackinson S, Steenbeek J, Walters C, Christensen V (2016) Best practice in ecopath with Ecosim food-web models for ecosystem-based management. Ecol Model 331:173–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Holmgren S (1994) An environmental assessment of the Bay of Bengal region. SWEDMAR, MadrasGoogle Scholar
  47. Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) report (2010) Department of Environment. Government of West Bengal, ICZM, ChennaiGoogle Scholar
  48. Islam R, Hossain MB, Das NG, Rafi RN (2009) Food and feeding behaviour of grey mullet, Mugil cephalus (L), off Bangladesh coastal waters. Bangladesh J Prog Sci Tech 7:273–276Google Scholar
  49. Jennings S, Kaiser MJ (1998) The effects of fishing on marine ecosystems. Adv Mar Biol 34:201–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kagwade PV (1970) Polynemid fishes of India. Bull Cent Mar Fish Res Inst 18:1–79Google Scholar
  51. Kumar VV, Reddy AD, Balakrishna C, Satyanarayana Y, Das SK (2012) Analysis of diet composition, feeding dynamics and proximate composition of Bombay duck, Harpodon nehereus along Sundarban area of West Bengal, India. Arch Appl Sci Res 4(2):1175–1182Google Scholar
  52. Kurian A (2000) The Bombay duck: stock status and response to exploitation. CMFRI, KochiGoogle Scholar
  53. Kuthalingam MDK (1963) Observations on the fishery and biology of the silver pomfret Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen) from the Bay of Bangal. Indian J Fish 10(1):59–74Google Scholar
  54. Libralato S, Christensen V, Pauly D (2006) A method for identifying keystone species in food web models. Ecol Model 195(3):153–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Maneesha K, Sarma VVSS, Reddy NPC, Sadhuram Y, Murty TR, Sarma VV, Kumar MD (2011) Meso-scale atmospheric events promote phytoplankton blooms in the coastal Bay of Bengal. J Earth Syst Sci 120(4):773–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Manickchand-Heileman S, Mendoza-Hill J, Kong AL, Arocha F (2004) A trophic model for exploring possible ecosystem impacts of fishing in the Gulf of Paria, between Venezuela and Trinidad. Ecol Model 172(2):307–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Markaida U, Sosa-Nishizaki O (2003) Food and feeding habits of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) from the Gulf of California, Mexico. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 83(3):507–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Martell SJ, Beattie AI, Walters CJ, Nayar T, Briese R (2002) Simulating fisheries management strategies in the Strait of Georgia ecosystem using Ecopath and Ecosim. In: Pitcher T, Cochrane K (eds) The use of ecosystem models to investigate multispecies management strategies for capture fisheries. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, pp 16–23Google Scholar
  59. Mills LS, Soule ME, Doak DF (1993) The keystone-species concept in ecology and conservation. Bioscience 43(4):219–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mohamed KS, Zacharia PU, Muthiah C, Abdurahiman KP, Nayak TH (2008) Trophic modelling of the Arabian Sea ecosystem off Karnataka and simulation of fishery yields. Bull Cent Mar Fish Res Inst 51:140Google Scholar
  61. Mukhopadhyay SK, Biswas H, De TK, Jana TK (2006) Fluxes of nutrients from the tropical river Hoogly at the land–ocean boundary of Sundarbans, NE coast of Bay of Bengal, India. J Mar Syst 62(1):9–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Murawski SA (2000) Definitions of overfishing from an ecosystem perspective. ICES J Mar Sci 57(3):649–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mustafa MG (2003) Trophic model of the coastal ecosystem in the waters of Bangladesh, Bay of Bengal. In: Silvestre et al. (eds) Assessment, management and future directions for coastal fisheries in Asian countries. World Fish Center Conference Proceedings, pp 263–280Google Scholar
  64. Nandakumar G, Damodaran R (1998) Food and feeding habits of the speckled shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius). J Mar Biol Assoc India 40(1–2):30–43Google Scholar
  65. Newell GE, Newell RC (1977) Marine plankton-a practical guide. Hutchinson, London, pp 170–225Google Scholar
  66. Odum EP (1969) The strategy of ecosystem development. Science 164:723–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Odum EP (1971) Fundamentals of ecology, 3rd edn. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  68. Paine RT (1995) A conversation on refining the concept of keystone species. Conserv Biol 9(4):962–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Palomares MLD, Pauly D (1998) Predicting food consumption of fish populations as functions of mortality, food type, morphometrics, temperature and salinity. Mar Freshwater Res 49(5):447–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pauly D (1980) On the interrelationships between natural mortality, growth parameters and mean environmental temperature in 175 fish stocks. J Cons CIEM 39(2):175–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pauly D (1982) Studying single species dynamics in a tropical multi-species context. In: Pauly D, Murphy GI (eds) Theory and management of tropical fisheries. ICLARM conference proceedings, Cronulla, pp 33–70Google Scholar
  72. Pauly D (1984a) Fish population dynamics in tropical waters: a manual for use with programmable calculators. ICLARM Stud Rev 8:325Google Scholar
  73. Pauly D (1984b) Length-converted catch curves: a powerful tool for fisheries research in the tropics. Part II. ICLARM Fishbyte 2:17–19Google Scholar
  74. Pauly D (1990) Length-converted catch curves and the seasonal growth of fishes. ICLARM Fishbyte 8(3):33–38Google Scholar
  75. Pauly D, Watson R (2005) Background and interpretation of the ‘marine trophic index’ as a measure of biodiversity. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 360(1454):415–423CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Pauly D, Soriano-Bartz ML, Palomares MLD (1993) Improved construction, parametrization and interpretation of steady-state ecosystem models. In: Christensen V, Pauly D (eds) Trophic models of aquatic ecosystems. ICLARM conference proceedings, Washington, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  77. Pauly D, Christensen V, Dalsgaard J, Froese R, Torres JF (1998) Fishing down marine food webs. Science 279(5352):860–863CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Pauly D, Christensen V, Walters C (2000) Ecopath, Ecosim and ecospace as tools for evaluating ecosystem impact of fisheries. ICES J Mar Sci 57(3):697–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Piatkowski U, Hernández-García V, Clarke MR (1998) On the biology of the European flying squid Todarodes sagittatus (Lamarck, 1798) (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae) in the central eastern Atlantic. Afr J Mar Sci 20:375–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pikitch EK, Santora C, Babcock EA, Bakun A, Bonfil R, Conover DO, Dayton P, Doukakis P, Fluharty D, Heneman B, Houde ED, Link J, Livingston PA, Mangel M, McAllister MK, Pope J, Sainsbury KJ (2004) Ecosystem-based fishery management. Science 305(5682):346–347CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Plaganyi EE (2007) Methods for assessing indirect ecosystem impacts of fisheries. FAO Fish Tech Rep. Fao, RomeGoogle Scholar
  82. Polovina JJ (1984) Model of a coral reef ecosystem. 1. The Ecopath model and its application to French frigate shoals. Coral Reefs 3(1):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Power ME, Tilman D, Estes JA, Menge BA, Bond WJ, Mills LS, Daily G, Castilla JC, Lubchenco J, Paine RT (1996) Challenges in the quest for keystones. Bioscience 46(8):609–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Prasanna Kumar S, Muraleedharan PM, Prasad TG, Gauns M, Ramaiah N, de Souza SN, Sardesai S, Madhupratap M (2002) Why is the Bay of Bengal less productive during summer monsoon compared to the Arabian Sea? Geophys Res Lett 29(24):881–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Raje SG (2006) Some aspects of biology of catfishes Tachysurus caelatus (Valenciennes) and Osteogeneiosus militaris (Linnaeus) from Mumbai. Indian J Fish 53(3):330–343Google Scholar
  86. Raje SG, Joshi KK (2003) Elasmobranchs. In: Joseph MM, Jayaprakash AA (eds) Status of exploited marine fishery resources of India. CMFRI, ChennaiGoogle Scholar
  87. Rohit P, Ram Mohan K (2009) Fishery and biological aspects of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares along Andhra coast, India. Asian Fish Sci 22(1):235–244Google Scholar
  88. Rohit P, Rajesh KM, Sampathkumar G, Sahib K (2015) Food and feeding of the ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus off Karnataka, south-west coast of India. Indian J Fish 62(1):58–63Google Scholar
  89. Santhanam R, Srinivasan A, Devaraj M (1993) Trophic model of an estuarine ecosystem at the southeast coast of India. In: Christensen V, Pauly D (eds) Trophic models of aquatic ecosystems. ICLARM conference proceedings, Manila, pp 230–233Google Scholar
  90. Sarvesan R (1974) Cephalopods. Bull Cent Mar Fish Res Inst 25:63–83Google Scholar
  91. Thangavelu R, Anbarasu M, Zala MS, Koya M, Sreenath KR, Mojjada SK, Shiju P (2012) Food and feeding habits of commercially important demersal finfishes off Veraval coast. Indian J Fish 59(4):77–87Google Scholar
  92. Thorpe A, Reid C, Anrooy RV, Brugere C, Becker D (2006) Poverty reduction strategy papers and the fisheries sector: an opportunity forgone? J Intl Dev 18(4):489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ulanowicz RE (1986) Growth and development: ecosystem phenomenology. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ulanowicz RE, Norden JS (1990) Symmetrical overhead in flow and networks. Int J Syst Sci 21(2):429–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ullah MH, Rashed-Un-Nabi M, Al-Mamun MA (2012) Trophic model of the coastal ecosystem of the Bay of Bengal using mass balance Ecopath model. Ecol Model 225:82–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Vasconcellos M, Mackinson S, Sloman K, Pauly D (1997) The stability of trophic mass-balance models of marine ecosystems: a comparative analysis. Ecol Model 100(1):125–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Vasconcellos M, Heymans J, Bundy A (2002) The use of Ecosim to investigate multispecies harvesting strategies for capture fisheries of the Newfoundland-Labrador shelf. In: Pitcher T, Cochrane K (eds) The use of ecosystem models to investigate multispecies management strategies for capture fisheries. Fisheries Centre Research Reports, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, pp 68–72Google Scholar
  98. Venkateswaran SV (1956) On evaporation from the Indian ocean. Indian J Meteorol Geophys 7:265–284Google Scholar
  99. Vivekanandan E, Srinath M, Pillai VN, Immanuel S, Kurup KN (2003) Trophic model of the coastal fisheries ecosystem of the southwest coast of India. In: Silvestre et al. (eds) Assessment, management and future directions for coastal fisheries in Asian countries. WorldFish Center Conference Proceedings, pp 281–297Google Scholar
  100. Walters C, Christensen V, Pauly D (1997) Structuring dynamic models of exploited ecosystems from trophic mass balance assessments. Rev Fish Biol Fish 7(2):139–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Walters C, Pauly D, Christensen V (2000) Ecospace: prediction of meso scale spatial patterns in trophic relationships of exploited ecosystems, with emphasis on the impacts of marine protected areas. Ecosystems 2:539–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zeller D, Freire K (2002) A preliminary north–east Atlantic marine ecosystem model: the Faroe Islands and ICES area VB. In: Pitcher T, Cochrane K (eds) The use of ecosystem models to investigate multispecies management strategies for capture fisheries. Fisheries centre research reports, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, pp 39–45Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Fisheries Science 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isha Das
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sugata Hazra
    • 1
  • Sourav Das
    • 1
  • Sandip Giri
    • 1
  • Abhra Chanda
    • 1
  • Sourav Maity
    • 2
  • Shubhadeep Ghosh
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Oceanographic StudiesJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS)HyderabadIndia
  3. 3.Visakhapatnam Regional Centre of CMFRIVisakhapatnamIndia

Personalised recommendations