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Alarming Situation of Spreading Enteric Viruses Through Sewage Water in Dhaka City: Molecular Epidemiological Evidences

  • Sheikh Ariful Hoque
  • Aksara Thongprachum
  • Sayaka Takanashi
  • Salwa Mohd Mostafa
  • Hiroyuki Saito
  • Kazi Selim Anwar
  • Akiko Nomura
  • Sk. Azimul Hoque
  • Rokeya Begum
  • Ummay Nasrin Sultana
  • Tania Hossain
  • Pattara Khamrin
  • Shoko Okitsu
  • Satoshi Hayakawa
  • Hiroshi Ushijima
Original Paper

Abstract

Global burden of acute viral gastroenteritis remains high, particularly in developing countries including Bangladesh. Sewage water (SW) is an important node to monitor enteric pathogens both in the environment and among the population. Analysis of SW in Dhaka city deems crucially important because a large number of urban-city dwellers live in Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh, under a constant threat of precarious sewerage system. In this study, we collected raw SW from five locations of Dhaka city every month from June 2016 to May 2017. It was concentrated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and investigated for three major enteric viruses, rotavirus A (RVA), norovirus GII (NoV GII) and adenovirus (AdV) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Most of these SW samples collected from both hospitals and non-hospital areas yielded enteric viruses: 76% samples were positive for AdV, followed by 53% NoV GII and 38% RVA. Viral load was determined as much as 1 × 107 copies/ml for RVA and 3.5 × 103 copies/ml for NoV GII. Importantly, NoV GII and AdV that can affect people of all ages were predominated during monsoon also when SW overflows and spreads over a wide and crowded area. Genotypes G1, G2, G3, G8, and G9 for RVA, GII.4 for NoV, and type 41 for AdV were detected representing the current profile of circulating genotypes in the population. This study provides the first evidence of distribution of major diarrheal viruses in SW in Dhaka city which is alarming showing grave risk of impending outbreaks through exposure.

Keywords

Sewage Dhaka Rotavirus A Norovirus GII Adenovirus 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Bangladesh (Grant Number: 39.00.0000.09.02.069.16-17/BS-127/141), Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Grant Number: 24390266, 16H05360), Public Foundation of the Vaccination Research Center (Grant Number: 2015-34, 2018-38) and Kurozumi Medical Foundation. We are thankful to Professor Dr. Golam Mohammed Bhuiyan, Director, Centre for Advanced Research in Sciences (CARS), University of Dhaka, Bangladesh for allowing this collaborative study between University of Dhaka, Bangladesh and Nihon University School of Medicine, Japan.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

We do not have any association either directly or indirectly that might pose a conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sheikh Ariful Hoque
    • 1
    • 2
  • Aksara Thongprachum
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sayaka Takanashi
    • 4
  • Salwa Mohd Mostafa
    • 1
  • Hiroyuki Saito
    • 5
  • Kazi Selim Anwar
    • 6
  • Akiko Nomura
    • 2
  • Sk. Azimul Hoque
    • 7
  • Rokeya Begum
    • 8
  • Ummay Nasrin Sultana
    • 1
  • Tania Hossain
    • 1
  • Pattara Khamrin
    • 2
    • 9
  • Shoko Okitsu
    • 2
    • 3
  • Satoshi Hayakawa
    • 2
  • Hiroshi Ushijima
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Cell and Tissue Culture Laboratory, Centre for Advanced Research in Sciences (CARS)University of DhakaDhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and MicrobiologyNihon University School of MedicineTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of Public HealthChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  4. 4.Department of Developmental Medical Sciences, School of International Health, Graduate School of MedicineUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan
  5. 5.Akita Prefectural Research Center for Public Health and EnvironmentAkitaJapan
  6. 6.Department of Infectious DiseasesInternational University of Health and Welfare (IUHW)NaritaJapan
  7. 7.National Institute Neuroscience and HospitalDhakaBangladesh
  8. 8.Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Laboratory, Centre for Advanced Research in Sciences (CARS)University of DhakaDhakaBangladesh
  9. 9.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of MedicineChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand

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