Advertisement

Manufacturing and Control of a Robotic Device for Time-averaged Simulated Micro and Partial Gravity of a Cell Culture Environment

  • Yoon Jae Kim
  • Min Hyuk Lim
  • Byoungjun Jeon
  • Dong Hyun Choi
  • Haeri Lee
  • Ae Jin Jeong
  • Min Jung Kim
  • Ji Won Park
  • Ja-Lok Ku
  • Seung-Yong Jeong
  • Sang-Kyu Ye
  • Youdan Kim
  • Sungwan KimEmail author
Article
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

Gravity is omnipresent for all objects on Earth. However, in an environment of different gravitational stress (e.g., microgravity or partial gravity), cells and organs show different biological responses. So, researchers have attempted to achieve micro- or partial gravity on Earth through various approaches, such as parabolic flight or free fall. However, the duration of such ground experiments is highly limited, making it very difficult to conduct time-consuming tasks, such as cell culture. Thus, a three-dimensional (3D) clinostat is utilized as an alternative for experiments on the International Space Station. It provides time-averaged simulated micro- and partial gravity by using mechanical frames with two rotating actuators. This study proposes novel control algorithms for simulating micro- and partial gravity and validates them by applying it to the control of a manufactured 3D clinostat. First, the novel algorithm for time-averaged simulated microgravity (taSMG) provided a more uniformly distributed gravity field by reducing two poles the gravity-concentrated areas. The taSMG with reduced poles provides isotropic gravitational patterns, from which it is possible to minimize the unnecessary effect due to nonuniformity of the gravity vector direction. Second, the other suggested novel algorithm for time-averaged simulated partial gravity (taSPG) controls the pole sizes asymmetrically to generate the intended size of partial gravity. The suggested algorithms are based on mathematical models rather than totally randomized motions. Therefore, the convergence of gravity values, in the rotating frame over time, can be analytically predicted with improved accuracy compared with previously reported algorithms. The developed 3D clinostat hardware and algorithms will effectively provide well-validated taSMG and taSPG for cell growth experiments in future studies for space medicine.

Keywords

Cell culture clinostat control algorithm microgravity partial gravity space medicine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

References

  1. [1]
    R. H. Fitts, S. W. Trappe, D. L. Costill, P. M. Gallagher, A. C. Creer, P. A. Colloton, J. R. Peters, J. G. Romatowski, J. L. Bain, and D. A. Riley, “Prolonged space fight-induced alterations in the structure and function of human skeletal muscle fibres,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 588, no. 18, pp. 3567–3592, September 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    D. A. Riley, J. L. Bain, J. L. Thompson, R. H. Fitts, J. J. Widrick, S. W. Trappe, T. A. Trappe, and D. L. Costill, “Decreased thin filament density and length in human atrophic soleus muscle fibers after space flight,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 567–572, February, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    S. W. Trappe, T. A. Trappe, G. A. Lee, J. J. Widrick, D. L. Costill, and R. H. Fitts, “Comparison of a space shuttle fight (STS-78) and bed rest on human muscle function,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 57–64, July 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    K. M. Baldwin, R. E. Herrick, E. Ilyina-Kakueva, and V. S. Oganov, “Effects of zero gravity on myofibril content and isomyosin distribution in rodent skeletal muscle,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 79–83, January 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    M. L. Lewis, J. L. Reynolds, L. A. Cubano, J. P. Hatton, B. D. Lawless, and E. H. Piepmeier, “Space flight alters microtubules and increases apoptosis in human lymphocytes (Jurkat),” The FASEB Journal, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1007–1018, August 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    D. Williams, A. Kuipers, C. Mukai, and R. Thirsk, “Acclimation during space flight: Effects on human physiology,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 180, no. 13, pp. 1317–1323, June 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    S. K. Mehta, R. P. Stowe, A. H. Feiveson, S. K. Tyring, and D. L. Pierson, “Reactivation and shedding of cytomegalovirus in astronauts during space flight,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 182, no. 6, pp. 1761–1764, November 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    J. B. Boonyaratanakornkit, A. Cogoli, C. F. Li, T. Schopper, P. Pippia, G. Galleri, M. A. Meloni, and M. Hughes-Fulford, “Key gravity sensitive signalling pathways drive T cell activation,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 19, no. 14, pp. 2020–2022, October 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    A. Villa, S. Versari, J. A. Maier, and S. Bradamante, “Cell behavior in simulated microgravity: A comparison of results obtained with RWV and RPM,” Gravitational and Space Biology Bulletin, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 89–90, June 2005.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    J. P. Hatton, F. Gaubert, M. L. Lewis, Y. Darsel, P. Ohlmann, J. P. Cazenave, and D. Schmitt, “The kinetics of translocation and cellular quantity of protein kinase C in human leukocytes are modified during spaceflight,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 13, no. 9001, pp. 23–33, May 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    M. Cogoli-Greuter, “The lymphocyte story — An overview of selected highlights on the in vitro activation of human lymphocytes in space,” Microgravity Science and Technology, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 343–352, July 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    M. Schwarzenberg, M. A. Meloni, G. Cossu, M. Cogoli-Greuter, and A. Cogoli, “Signal transduction in T lymphocytesA comparison of the data from space, the free fall machine and the random positioning machine,” Advances in Space Research, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 793–800, February 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    I. Walther, P. Pippia, M. A. Meloni, F. Turrini, F. Mannu, and A. Cogoli, “Simulated microgravity inhibits the genetic expression of interleukin-2 and its receptor in mitogen-activated T lymphocytes,” FEBS Letters, vol. 436, no. 1, pp. 115–118, September 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    J. W. A. van Loon, “Some history and use of the random positioning machine, RPM, in gravity related research,” Advances in Space Research, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 1161–1165, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    A. G. Borst, and J. W. A. van Loon, “Technology and developments for the random positioning machine, RPM,” Microgravity Science and Technology, vol. 21, no. 287, pp. 287–292, November 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Y. J. Kim, A. J. Jeong, M. J. Kim, C. W. Lee, S.-K. Ye, and S. Kim, “Time-averaged simulated microgravity (taSMG) inhibits proliferation of lymphoma cells, L-540 and HDLM-2, using a 3D clinostat,” BioMedical Engineering OnLine, vol. 16, no. 48, pp. 1–12, April 2017.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    A. J. Jeong, Y. J. Kim, M. H. Lim, H. Lee, K. Noh, B.-H. Kim, J. W. Chung, C.-H. Cho, S. Kim, and S.-K. Ye, “Microgravity induces autophagy via mitochondrial dysfunction in human Hodgkin’s lymphoma cells,” Scientific Reports, vol. 8, no. 14646, pp. 1–10, October 2018.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    S. L. Wuest, S. Richard, I. Walther, R. Furrer, R. Anderegg, J. Sekler, and M. Egli, “A novel microgravity simulator applicable for three-dimensional cell culturing,” Microgravity Science and Technology, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 77–88, October 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    A. Manzano, R. Herranz, L. A. den Toom, S. te Slaa, G. Borst, M. Visser, F. J. Medina, and J. W. A. van Loon, “Novel, Moon and Mars, partial gravity simulation paradigms and their effects on the balance between cell growth and cell proliferation during early plant development,” npj Microgravity, vol. 4 no. 9, pp. 1–11, 2018.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    A. Rojas-Moreno, and F. Santos-Rodriguez, “Design of a novel 3DOF clinostat to produce microgravity for bioengineering applications,” Proc. of the IEEE XXV International Conference on Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computing (INTERCON), August 2018.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ICROS, KIEE and Springer 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoon Jae Kim
    • 1
  • Min Hyuk Lim
    • 2
  • Byoungjun Jeon
    • 3
  • Dong Hyun Choi
    • 2
  • Haeri Lee
    • 4
  • Ae Jin Jeong
    • 4
  • Min Jung Kim
    • 5
  • Ji Won Park
    • 5
  • Ja-Lok Ku
    • 6
  • Seung-Yong Jeong
    • 7
  • Sang-Kyu Ye
    • 4
  • Youdan Kim
    • 8
  • Sungwan Kim
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Medical and Biological EngineeringSeoul National University (SNU)SeoulKorea
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical EngineeringSNU College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  3. 3.Interdisciplinary Program for BioengineeringSNUSeoulKorea
  4. 4.Department of Pharmacology and Biomedical SciencesSNU College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  5. 5.Department of SurgerySeoul National University HospitalSeoulKorea
  6. 6.Department of Biomedical SciencesSNU College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  7. 7.Department of SurgerySNU College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  8. 8.Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringSNU College of EngineeringSeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations