Advertisement

Probation and Race in the 1980s: A Quantitative Examination of Felonious Rearrests and Minority Threat Theory

  • Victor St. JohnEmail author
Article

Abstract

Black and Latinx persons are overrepresented in the population of people who are incarcerated, on probation and on parole in the United States. Empirical investigations on the breadth and depth of the disparate outcomes for incarcerated Black and Latinx persons remain limited, presenting historical gaps in the understanding of community corrections at different time periods. Taking the position that history repeats itself and that data on racial and ethnic inequalities from the past are as relevant as data in the present, this study examines the relationship between race and community corrections during the 1980s, filling a historical void in the documentation, statistical rigor, and understanding of disproportionate probation outcomes. A nationally representative sample of 12,368 people on probation in the United States during the late 1980s was used to examine Minority Threat Theory, yielding the findings that an individual’s race and ethnicity, as well as the community’s racial and ethnic composition were predictive factors of a probationer being rearrested for a felony charge. The findings suggest that racial and ethnic disparities in community corrections existed almost four decades ago and the crafting of policies that foster a fair community corrections system should look to the past as well as the present when tailoring and implementing community alternatives to incarceration.

Keywords

Race Probation Criminal Justice Community Corrections Minority Groups 

Notes

References

  1. Alexander, M. (2012). The new jim crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  2. Al-Tayyib, A. A., Koester, S., & Riggs, P. (2017). Prescription opioids prior to injection drug use: Comparisons and public health implications. Addictive Behaviors, 65, 224–228.Google Scholar
  3. Ayres, I., & Borowsky, J. (2008). A study of racially disparate outcomes in the Los Angeles Police Department. Los Angeles: ACLU of Southern California.Google Scholar
  4. Beaver, K. M., DeLisi, M., Wright, J. P., Boutwell, B. B., Barnes, J. C., & Vaughn, M. G. (2013). No evidence of racial discrimination in criminal justice processing: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(1), 29–34.Google Scholar
  5. Bell, S. D. (2014). The long shadow: Decreasing barriers to employment, housing, and civic participation for people with criminal records will improve public safety and strengthen the economy. W. St. L. Rev., 42, 1.Google Scholar
  6. Blount-Hill, K. L., & St. John, V. (2017). Manufactured “mismatch” cultural incongruence and black experience in the academy. Race and Justice, 7(2), 110–126.Google Scholar
  7. Bouvier, B. A., Elston, B., Hadland, S. E., Green, T. C., & Marshall, B. D. (2017). Willingness to use a supervised injection facility among young adults who use prescription opioids non-medically: A cross-sectional study. Harm Reduction Journal, 14(1), 13.Google Scholar
  8. Bowling, B. (2018). Pulled over: How police stops define race and citizenship. Policing and Society, 28(5), 626–629.Google Scholar
  9. Chatfield, C. (2018). Introduction to multivariate analysis. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Cochran, J. C., & Mears, D. P. (2015). Race, ethnic, and gender divides in juvenile court sanctioning and rehabilitative intervention. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 52(2), 181–212.Google Scholar
  11. Crenshaw, K. W. (1988). Race, reform and retrenchment: Transformation and anti-discrimination law. Harvard Law Review, 101, 1331–1387.Google Scholar
  12. Danielle Kaeble, Lauren E. Glaze. (2016). Bureau of Justice Statistics. Correctional Populations in the United States, 2015)Google Scholar
  13. Edkins, V. A. (2011). Defense attorney plea recommendations and client race: Does zealous representation apply equally to all? Law and Human Behavior, 35(5), 413–425.Google Scholar
  14. Evans, D. N., Blount-Hill, K. L., & Cubellis, M. A. (2018). Examining housing discrimination across race, gender and felony history. Housing Studies, 1-18.Google Scholar
  15. Evans, D. N., Szkola, J., & John, V. S. (2019). Going Back to College? Criminal Stigma in Higher Education Admissions in Northeastern US. Critical Criminology, 1-14.Google Scholar
  16. Farrington, D. P., & Welsh, B. C. (2005). Randomized experiments in criminology: What have we learned in the last two decades? Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1(1), 9–38.Google Scholar
  17. Freiburger, T. L., & Hilinski, C. M. (2013). An examination of the interactions of race and gender on sentencing decisions using a trichotomous dependent variable. Crime and Delinquency, 59(1), 59–86.Google Scholar
  18. Furlan, A. D., Carnide, N., Irvin, E., Van Eerd, D., Munhall, C., Kim, J., et al. (2018). A systematic review of strategies to improve appropriate use of opioids and to reduce opioid use disorder and deaths from prescription opioids. Canadian Journal of Pain, 2(1), 218–235.Google Scholar
  19. Gabbidon, S. L., Higgins, G. E., & Potter, H. (2011). Race, gender, and the perception of recently experiencing unfair treatment by the police: Exploratory results from an all-black sample. Criminal Justice Review, 36(1), 5–21.Google Scholar
  20. Garland, D. (2001). The culture of control (Vol. 367). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Geller, A., & Curtis, M. A. (2011). A sort of homecoming: Incarceration and the housing security of urban men. Social Science Research, 40(4), 1196–1213.Google Scholar
  22. Gelman, A., Fagan, J., & Kiss, A. (2007). An analysis of the New York City police department’s “stop-and-frisk” policy in the context of claims of racial bias. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 102(479), 813–823.Google Scholar
  23. Gray, M. K., Fields, M., & Maxwell, S. R. (2001). Examining probation violations: Who, what, and when. Crime and Delinquency, 47(4), 537–557.Google Scholar
  24. Jung, H., Spjeldnes, S., & Yamatani, H. (2010). Recidivism and survival time: Racial disparity among jail ex-inmates. Social Work Research, 34(3), 181–189.Google Scholar
  25. Kaeble D (2016) Probation and parole in the United States, 2015. Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1–19Google Scholar
  26. Kent, S. L., & Jacobs, D. (2005). Minority threat and police strength from 1980 to 2000: A fixed-effects analysis of nonlinear and interactive effects in large US cities. Criminology, 43(3), 731–760.Google Scholar
  27. Kolodny, A., Courtwright, D. T., Hwang, C. S., Kreiner, P., Eadie, J. L., Clark, T. W., et al. (2015). The prescription opioid and heroin crisis: A public health approach to an epidemic of addiction. Annual Review of Public Health, 36, 559–574.Google Scholar
  28. Kutateladze, B. L., Andiloro, N. R., Johnson, B. D., & Spohn, C. C. (2014). Cumulative disadvantage: Examining racial and ethnic disparity in prosecution and sentencing. Criminology, 52(3), 514–551.Google Scholar
  29. Ladson-Billings, G. (1998). Just what is critical race theory and what’s it doing in a nice field like education? International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 11, 7–24.Google Scholar
  30. Langan, P., & Cunniff, M. (1992). Recidivism of felons on probation, 1986-89. Bureau of Justice Statistics: U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs.Google Scholar
  31. Langan, P., & Dawson, J. (1990). Profile of felons convicted in State Courts, 1986. Bureau of Justice Statistics: U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs.Google Scholar
  32. Long, S. J., Long, J. S., & Freese, J. (2006). Regression models for categorical dependent variables using Stata. Texas: Stata Press.Google Scholar
  33. Marshall, B. D., Green, T. C., Yedinak, J. L., & Hadland, S. E. (2016). Harm reduction for young people who use prescription opioids extra-medically: Obstacles and opportunities. International Journal of Drug Policy, 31, 25–31.Google Scholar
  34. Massoglia, M., Remster, B., & King, R. D. (2011). Stigma or separation? Understanding the incarceration-divorce relationship. Social Forces, 90(1), 133–155.Google Scholar
  35. Matsuda, M. J. (1987). Looking to the bottom: Critical legal studies and reparations. Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Review, 72, 30–164.Google Scholar
  36. McGovern, V., Demuth, S., & Jacoby, J. E. (2009). Racial and ethnic recidivism risks A comparison of post incarceration rearrests, reconviction, and reincarceration among white, black, and hispanic releasees. The Prison Journal, 89(3), 309–327.Google Scholar
  37. McKay, T., Lindquist, C., Feinberg, R., Steffey, D., Landwehr, J., & Bir, A. (2018). Family life before and during incarceration. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 57(2), 96–114.Google Scholar
  38. Menard, S. (2002). Applied logistic regression analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage Pblications.Google Scholar
  39. Miller, T. R., Lawrence, B. A., Carlson, N. N., Hendrie, D., Randall, S., Rockett, I. R., et al. (2017). Perils of police action: A cautionary tale from US data sets. Injury prevention, 23(1), 27–32.Google Scholar
  40. Moineddin, R., Matheson, F. I., & Glazier, R. H. (2007). A simulation study of sample size for multilevel logistic regression models. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 7(1), 34.Google Scholar
  41. Morgan, K. D. (1994). Factors associated with probation outcome. Journal of Criminal Justice, 22(4), 341–353.Google Scholar
  42. Naser RL, Visher CA (2006) Family members’ experiences with incarceration and reentry. Western Criminology ReviewGoogle Scholar
  43. Natarajan, M. (Ed.). (2010). International crime and justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Netherland, J., & Hansen, H. (2017). White opioids: Pharmaceutical race and the war on drugs that wasn’t. BioSocieties, 12(2), 217–238.Google Scholar
  45. Olson, D. E., & Lurigio, A. J. (2000). Predicting probation outcomes: Factors associated with probation rearrest, revocations, and technical violations during supervision. Justice Research and Policy, 2(1), 73–86.Google Scholar
  46. Pager, D., & Shepherd, H. (2008). The sociology of discrimination: Racial discrimination in employment, housing, credit, and consumer markets. Annu. Rev. Sociol, 34, 181–209.Google Scholar
  47. Pager, D., Western, B., & Sugie, N. (2009). Sequencing disadvantage: Barriers to employment facing young black and white men with criminal records. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 623(1), 195–213.Google Scholar
  48. Parker, L., & Lynn, M. (2002). What’s race got to do with it? Critical race theory’s conflicts with and connections to qualitative research methodology and epistemology. Qualitative Inquiry, 8, 7–22.Google Scholar
  49. Petersilia, J. (1985). Probation and felony offenders. Fed. Probation, 49, 4.Google Scholar
  50. Petersilia, J., & Turner, S. (1993). Intensive probation and parole. Crime and Justice, 17, 281–335.Google Scholar
  51. Piquero, A. R. (2008). Disproportionate minority contact. The future of children., 18(2), 59–79.Google Scholar
  52. Rehavi, M. M., & Starr, S. B. (2014). Racial disparity in federal criminal sentences. Journal of Political Economy, 122(6), 1320–1354.Google Scholar
  53. Rembert, D. A., Henderson, H., & Pirtle, D. (2014). Differential racial/ethnic predictive validity. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 12(2), 152–166.Google Scholar
  54. Roberts, D. E. (2003). The social and moral cost of mass incarceration in African American communities. Stan. L. Rev., 56, 1271.Google Scholar
  55. Ross, R. R., & Gendreau, P. (Eds.). (1980). Effective correctional treatment. Toronto: Butterworths.Google Scholar
  56. Satter, B. (2009). Family properties: Race, real estate, and the exploitation of black urban America. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  57. Scull, A. T. (2014). Decarceration: Community treatment and the deviant-a radical view. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  58. Shannon, S. K., Uggen, C., Schnittker, J., Thompson, M., Wakefield, S., & Massoglia, M. (2017). The growth, scope, and spatial distribution of people with felony records in the United States, 1948–2010. Demography, 54(5), 1795–1818.Google Scholar
  59. Sims, B., & Jones, M. (1997). Predicting success or failure on probation: Factors associated with felony probation outcomes. Crime and Delinquency, 43(3), 314–327.Google Scholar
  60. Snell, T. (1995). Correctional populations in the United States, 1993. Bureau of Justice Statistics., 6(7), 8.Google Scholar
  61. Steinmetz, K. F., & Henderson, H. (2016). Inequality on probation: An examination of differential probation outcomes. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, 14(1), 1–20.Google Scholar
  62. Sugie, N. F., & Lens, M. C. (2017). Daytime locations in spatial mismatch: Job accessibility and employment at reentry from prison. Demography, 54(2), 775–800.Google Scholar
  63. Taylor, R. J., Miller, R., Mouzon, D., Keith, V. M., & Chatters, L. M. (2018). Everyday discrimination among African American men: The impact of criminal justice contact. Race and Justice, 8(2), 154–177.Google Scholar
  64. Travis, J. (2005). But they all come back: Facing the challenges of prisoner reentry. Washington DC: The Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  65. Turner, S., Petersilia, J., & Deschenes, E. P. (1992). Evaluating intensive supervision probation/parole (ISP) for drug offenders. Crime and Delinquency, 38(4), 539–556.Google Scholar
  66. Uggen, C., Horowitz, V., & Stewart, R. (2017). Public criminology and criminologists with records. The Criminologist, 42, 3–7.Google Scholar
  67. Visher, C. A., & Travis, J. (2011). Life on the outside: Returning home after incarceration. The Prison Journal., 91(3), 102S–119S.Google Scholar
  68. Western, B. (2002). The impact of incarceration on wage mobility and inequality. American Sociological Review., 67(4), 526–546.Google Scholar
  69. Western, B., & Sirois, C. (2017). Racial inequality in employment and earnings after incarceration. Working Paper. Cambridge, Mass. Massachusetts: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  70. Wooldredge, J., & Thistlethwaite, A. (2005). Court dispositions and rearrest for intimate assault. NCCD News, 51(1), 75–102.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.John Jay College of Criminal JusticeCUNY Graduate CenterNew York CityUSA

Personalised recommendations