Advertisement

Ethnic Heterogeneity Politics of Welfare State in the United States: A Time Series Analysis, 1940–2016

  • Udaya R. WagleEmail author
Article

Abstract

Welfare state policies in the United States have expanded significantly, with some short-term fluctuations, since the 1940s. This paper examines the politics of ethnic heterogeneity in order to explain these welfare state changes. Results from various time-series regressions of public social transfer expenditures with or without health suggest welfare state-limiting roles of race and immigration, with the growing religious heterogeneity consistently helping to bolster welfare state policies. Albeit more nuanced than groundbreaking, findings help understand the nature of the American welfare state politics driven in part by the way ethnic heterogeneity shapes the evolving public opinion and policy preferences.

Keywords

Welfare state Ethnic heterogeneity Politics United States Time-series data 

Notes

References

  1. Adloff, F. (2006). Religion and social-political action: The Catholic church, Catholic charities, and the American welfare state. International Review of Sociology, 16(1), 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alesina, A., Baqir, R., & Easterly, W. (1999). Public goods and ethnic divisions. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(4), 1243–1284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alesina, A., & Glaeser, E. (2004). Fighting poverty in the US and Europe: a world of difference. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alesina, A., Glaeser, E., & Sacerdote, B. (2001). Why doesn’t the United States have a European-style welfare state? Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 2, 187–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alesina, A., & La Ferrara, E. (2005). Ethnic diversity and economic performance. Journal of Economic Literature, 43, 762–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Allport, G. (1958). The nature of prejudice. Garden City: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  7. Banting, K. (2010). Is there a progressive dilemma in Canada? immigration, multiculturalism, and the welfare state. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 43(4), 797–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Belcher, J., Fandetti, D., & Cole, D. (2004). Is Christian religious conservatism compatible with the liberal social welfare state? Social Work, 49(2), 269–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benabou, R., & Tirole, J. (2006). Belief and just world and redistributive politics. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 121(2), 699–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bitler, M., & Hoynes, H. (2013). Immigrants, welfare reform, and the U.S. safety net. In D. Card & S. Raphael (Eds.), Immigration, poverty, and socioeconomic inequality (pp. 315–380). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  11. Borjas, G., & Hilton, L. (1996). Immigration and the welfare state: immigrant participation in means-tested entitlement programs. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 111(2), 575–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brady, D. (2009). Rich democracies, poor people: How politics explain poverty. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brady, D., & Finnigan, R. (2014). Does immigration undermine public support for social policy? American Sociological Review, 79(1), 17–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, H. (2013). Racialized conflicts and policy spillover effects: the role of race in the contemporary U.S. welfare state. American Journal of Sociology, 119(2), 394–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crepaz, M. (2008). Trust beyond borders: Immigration, the welfare state, and identity in modern societies. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  16. Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  17. Esping-Andersen, G. (1999). Social foundations of postindustrial economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fording, R. (2003). “Laboratories of democracy” or symbolic politics? In S. Schram, J. Soss, & R. Fording (Eds.), Race and the politics of welfare reform (pp. 72–97). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  19. Fox, C. (2012). Three worlds of relief: race, immigration, and the American welfare state from the Progressive Era to the New Deal. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fox, C., Bloemraad, I., & Kesler, C. (2013). Immigration and redistributive social policy. In D. Card & S. Raphael (Eds.), Immigration, poverty, and socioeconomic inequality (pp. 381–420). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  21. Gaertner, S. L., & Dovidio, J. (2000). Reducing intergroup bias: The common group identity model. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  22. Gibson, J. L. (2010). The political consequences of religiosity: does religion always cause political intolerance? In A. Wolf & I. Katsnelson (Eds.), Religion and democracy in the United States: Danger or opportunity? (pp. 147–175). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Gilens, M. (1999). Why Americans hate welfare, race, media, and the politics of antipoverty policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gilens, M. (2003). How the poor became black: The racialization of American poverty in the mass-media. In S. Schran, J. Soss, & R. Fording (Eds.), Race and the politics of welfare reform (pp. 101–130). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  25. Gill, A., & Lundsgaarde, E. (2004). welfare state spending and religiosity: A cross-national analysis. Rationality and Society, 16(4), 399–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Glazer, N., & Moynihan, D. P. (1970). Beyond the melting pot: The negroes, Puerto Ricans, Jews, Italians, and Irish of New York City. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  27. Graham, C., & Crown, S. (2014). Religion and wellbeing around the world: Social time, social purpose, or social insurance? International Journal of Wellbeing, 4(1), 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hacker, J. (2002). The Divided welfare state: The battle over public and private social benefits in the United States. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hacker, J., & Pierson, P. (2002). Business power and social policy: Employers and the formation of an American welfare state. Politics and Society, 30(2), 277–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hero, R., & Preuhs, R. (2007). Immigration and the evolving American welfare state: Examining policies in the U.S. States. American Journal of Political Science, 51(3), 498–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hicks, A. (1999). Social democracy and welfare capitalism: A century of income security politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Huber, E., & Stephens, J. (2001). Development and crisis of the welfare state. Chicago: Chicago University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Isaacs, H. (1975). Idols of the tribe: Group identity and political change. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Iversen, T., & Cusack, T. R. (2000). Causes of welfare state expansion: Deindustrialization or globalization? World Politics, 52, 313–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jordan, J. (2014). Religion and inequality: The lasting impact of religious traditions and institutions on welfare state development. European Political Science Review.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s1755773914000381.Google Scholar
  36. Korpi, W. (1983). The democratic class struggle. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. Korpi, W. (1989). Power politics and state autonomy in the development of social citizenship: Social rights during sickness in 18 OECD countries since 1930. American Sociological Review, 54(3), 309–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Korpi, W., & Palme, J. (2003). New politics and class politics in the context of austerity and globalization: welfare state regress in eighteen countries, 1975–1995. American Political Science Review, 97(3), 425–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Larsen, C. (2011). Ethnic heterogeneity and public support for welfare: is the American experience replicated in Britain, Sweden, and Denmark? Scandinavian Political Studies, 34(4), 332–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lee, W., Roemer, J., & Straeten, K. (2006). Racism, xenophobia, and redistribution. Journal of European Economic Association, 4(2–3), 446–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Liberman, R. (1998). Shifting the color line: Race and the American welfare state. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Macey, M., & Carling, A. (2011). Ethnic, racial, and religious inequalities: The perils of subjectivity. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Malesevic, S. (2004). The sociology of ethnicity. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  44. Neustadt, I. (2011). Do religious beliefs explain preferences for income redistribution? Experimental evidence. CESifo Economic Studies, 57(4), 623–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Opielka, M. (2008). Christian foundations of the welfare state: Strong cultural values in comparative perspective. In W. van Oorschoot, M. Opielka, & B. Pfau-Effinger (Eds.), Culture and welfare state: Values and social policy in comparative perspective (pp. 89–114). Northampton: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  46. Pierson, P. (1996). The New politics of welfare state. World Politics, 48(2), 143–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pierson, P. (Ed.). (2001). The new politics of welfare state. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Quadagno, J. (1994). The color of welfare: How racism undermined the war on poverty. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Quadagno, J. (1998). Race, class, and gender in the US welfare state: Nixon’s failed family assistance plan. In J. S. O’Connor & G. M. Olson (Eds.), Power resources theory and the welfare state: A critical approach (pp. 250–283). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  50. Scruggs, L., & Allan, J. (2006). Welfare state decommodification in 18 OECD countries: A replication and revision. Journal of European Social Policy, 16(1), 55–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Soroka, S., Banting, K., & Johnston, R. (2006). Immigration and redistribution in a global era. In S. Bowles, P. Bardhan, & M. Wallerstein (Eds.), Globalization and egalitarian redistribution (pp. 261–288). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Soss, J., Fording, R., & Schram, S. (2008). The color of devolution: race, federalism, and the politics of social control. American Journal of Political Science, 52(3), 536–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Soss, J., Fording, R., & Schram, S. (2011). Disciplining the poor: Neoliberal paternalism and the persistent power of race. Chicago: Chicago University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Soss, J., Schram, S., Vertanian, T., & O’Brian, E. (2001). Setting the terms of relief: Setting the state policy choices in the devolution revolution. American Journal of Political Science, 45(2), 378–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Stephens, J. D. (1979). The transition from capitalism to socialism. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Taylor, C. (1992). In A. Gutmann (Ed.), Multiculturalism and the politics of recognition. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Taylor-Gooby, P. (2005). Is the future American? Or, can left politics preserve European welfare states from erosion through growing ‘racial’ diversity? Journal of Social Policy, 34(4), 661–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tocqueville, A. (1835). Democracy in America. The Project Gutenberg EBook series# 816 (H. Reeve, Trans., January 21, 2006); http://www.gutenberg.org.
  59. Van Kersbergen, K. (2009). Religion and the welfare state in the Netherlands. In K. Van Kersbergen & P. Manow (Eds.), Religion, class coalitions, and welfare states (pp. 119–145). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Van Kersbergen, K., & Manow, P. (Eds.). (2009). Religion, class coalitions, and welfare states. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Van Oorschot, W. (2007). Solidarity towards immigrants in European welfare states. International Journal of Social Welfare, 17(1), 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wagle, U. (2012). The Food Stamps program and economic security among low income families, part I. Poverty & Public Policy, 4(4), 223–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wagle, U. (2013a). The heterogeneity link of the welfare state and redistribution. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wagle, U. (2013b). The heterogeneity politics of welfare state: changing population heterogeneity and welfare state policies in high-income OECD countries, 1980–2005. Politics & Policy, 41(6), 947–984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wilensky, H. (1975). The welfare state and state equality: Structural and ideological roots of public expenditures. Berkley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  66. Wilensky, H. (2002). Rich democracies: Political economy, public policy, and performance. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  67. Williams, B. F. (1989). Anthropology and the race to nation across ethnic terrain. Annual Review of Anthropology, 18, 401–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wooldridge, J. (2009). Introductory econometrics: A modern approach. Mason: Thompson South-Western.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Public Affairs and AdministrationWestern Michigan UniversityKalamazooUSA

Personalised recommendations