Biophysical Reviews

, Volume 11, Issue 6, pp 1017–1035 | Cite as

Continuous noninvasive glucose monitoring; water as a relevant marker of glucose uptake in vivo

  • Andreas Caduff
  • Paul Ben Ishai
  • Yuri FeldmanEmail author


With diabetes set to become the number 3 killer in the Western hemisphere and proportionally growing in other parts of the world, the subject of noninvasive monitoring of glucose dynamics in blood remains a “hot” topic, with the involvement of many groups worldwide. There is a plethora of techniques involved in this academic push, but the so-called multisensor system with an impedance-based core seems to feature increasingly strongly. However, the symmetrical structure of the glucose molecule and its shielding by the smaller dipoles of water would suggest that this option should be less enticing. Yet there is enough phenomenological evidence to suggest that impedance-based methods are truly sensitive to the biophysical effects of glucose variations in the blood. We have been trying to answer this very fundamental conundrum: “Why is impedance or dielectric spectroscopy sensitive to glucose concentration changes in the blood and why can this be done over a very broad frequency band, including microwaves?” The vistas for medical diagnostics are very enticing. There have been a significant number of papers published that look seriously at this problem. In this review, we want to summarize this body of research and the underlying mechanisms and propose a perspective toward utilizing the phenomena. It is our impression that the current world view on the dielectric response of glucose in solution, as outlined below, will support the further evolution and implementation toward practical noninvasive glucose monitoring solutions.


Glucose monitoring Dielectric spectroscopy, Impedance spectroscopy Microwave Water Cole–Cole broadening Multisensor 



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Copyright information

© International Union for Pure and Applied Biophysics (IUPAB) and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Applied Physics Department and the Center for Electromagnetic Research and CharacterizationThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsAriel UniversityArielIsrael

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