Biophysical Reviews

, Volume 11, Issue 2, pp 227–234 | Cite as

A perspective on the diagnostics, prognostics, and therapeutics of microRNAs of triple-negative breast cancer

  • Rama Rao MallaEmail author
  • Seema Kumari
  • Murali Mohan Gavara
  • Anil Kumar Badana
  • Shailender Gugalavath
  • Deepak Kakara Gift Kumar
  • Prasuja Rokkam


Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive and prevalent subtype of breast cancer in women worldwide. Currently, chemotherapy remains the main modality for the treatment at an early stage, as there is no approved targeted therapy for early TNBC. In this review, we investigate the use of microRNAs (miRNAs), which play a key role in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the key biological processes, namely proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, migration, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. Here, we emphasize the importance of the recent advances related to miRNAs, involving diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of TNBC. We focus on the development, optimization, and stabilization of miRNA-based drugs; improvement of miRNA delivery; and control of the off-target effects of miRNA therapeutics. We speculate as to which features may present themselves as promising approaches in the treatment of TNBC.


TNBC miRNA Cancer biomarkers miRNA-based therapy 


Bmi 1

B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog


Cancer stem cells


Estrogen receptor


Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2


Progesterone receptor


Triple-negative breast cancer


Tumor suppressor microRNA



We would like to thank DST-EMR/2016/002694, DST-FIST (SR/FST/LSI-568/2013), and GITAM (Deemed to be University) for providing lab facilities.

Authors’ contributions

RRM and SK contributed in designing of review. AKB, MM, SN participated in drafting and editing the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Rama Rao Malla declares that he has no conflict of interest. Seema Kumari declares that she has no conflict of interest. Murali Mohan Gavara declares that he has no conflict of interest. Anil Kumar Badana Gavara declares that he has no conflict of interest. Shailender Gugalavath declares that he has no conflict of interest. Deepak Kakara Gift Kumar declares that he has no conflict of interest. Prasuja Rokkam declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© International Union for Pure and Applied Biophysics (IUPAB) and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rama Rao Malla
    • 1
    Email author
  • Seema Kumari
    • 1
  • Murali Mohan Gavara
    • 1
  • Anil Kumar Badana
    • 1
  • Shailender Gugalavath
    • 1
  • Deepak Kakara Gift Kumar
    • 1
  • Prasuja Rokkam
    • 1
  1. 1.Cancer biology laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and BioinformaticsGIS, GITAM (Deemed to be University)VisakhapatnamIndia

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