Biophysical Reviews

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 119–121 | Cite as

CardiacProfileR: an R package for extraction and visualisation of heart rate profiles from wearable fitness trackers

  • Djordje Djordjevic
  • Beni K. Cawood
  • Sabrina K. Rispin
  • Anushi Shah
  • Leo H. H. Yim
  • Christopher S. Hayward
  • Joshua W. K. HoEmail author
Letter to the Editor


A heart rate profile is constructed from continuous measurement of heart rate before, during and after exercise, typically in the context of an exercise stress test. It contains important clinical parameters such as resting heart rate, maximal heart rate during exercise, and decrease of heart rate in the recovery phase. An increase in resting heart rate, a decrease in heart rate elevation in response to exercise, and a delay in heart rate recovery are significant predictors of sudden death (Cole et al. 1999; Jouven et al. 2005). These measurements, when derived from a controlled exercise stress test regime, have high intra-individual reproducibility over 3 years, indicating their usefulness as a diagnostic tool (Orini et al. 2017).

Heart rate parameters and profiles have been measured and constructed with exercise stress tests under controlled environments. This is often performed with a treadmill in a laboratory setting. With increasingly widespread availability of...


Funding information

This work was supported in part by funds from the New South Wales Ministry of Health, a National Health and Medical Research Council Career Development Fellowship (1105271 to JWKH) and the National Heart Foundation Future Leader Fellowship (100848 to JWKH).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Djordje Djordjevic declares that he has no conflict of interest. Beni K. Cawood declares that he has no conflict of interest. Sabrina K. Rispin declares that she has no conflict of interest. Anushi Shah declares that she has no conflict of interest. Leo H. H. Yim declares that he has no conflict of interest. Christopher S. Hayward declares that he has no conflict of interest. Joshua W. K. Ho declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© International Union for Pure and Applied Biophysics (IUPAB) and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Victor Chang Cardiac Research InstituteDarlinghurstAustralia
  2. 2.The University of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  3. 3.St Vincent’s HospitalSydneyAustralia
  4. 4.School of Biomedical Sciences, Li Ka Shing Faculty of MedicineThe University of Hong KongHong KongChina

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