Effect of ensiling duration on the fate of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and their derivatives in maize silage
Fusarium mycotoxins and their derivatives are frequently detected in freshly harvested forage maize. This study assessed the time course effects during ensiling of forage maize on the fate of Fusarium mycotoxins, using laboratory-scale silos and artificially contaminated raw material. A multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method was used to determine the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and their derivatives DON-3-glucoside, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON, deepoxy-DON, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol. A significant increase of DON was observed during ensiling, whereas the levels of DON-3-glucoside and its acetylated forms proportionally decreased. In contrast, levels of ZEN, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol were not affected by the ensiling process. Based on these findings, ensiling is not a practical method for reducing the total amount of Fusarium mycotoxins present at harvest.
KeywordsFusarium Mycotoxin Degradation Feed Modified mycotoxin HRMS
Coefficient of variation
Liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry
The authors would like to acknowledge the statistical support of Mario Hasler and the technical assistances of Nicole Lau, Linda Kettler, Daniel Weber and Friedrich Bornemann. Furthermore, they want to thank Markus Schemmel and Thomas Bergmann for proofreading and Siegfried Wolffram for providing the Savant SPD 2010 SpeedVacTM.
This work was funded by the H. Wilhelm Schaumann Stiftung.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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