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Effect of ensiling duration on the fate of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and their derivatives in maize silage

  • Tolke JensenEmail author
  • Marthe De Boevre
  • Sarah De Saeger
  • Nils Preußke
  • Frank D. Sönnichsen
  • Ewald Kramer
  • Holger Klink
  • Joseph-Alexander Verreet
  • Tim Birr
Original Article

Abstract

Fusarium mycotoxins and their derivatives are frequently detected in freshly harvested forage maize. This study assessed the time course effects during ensiling of forage maize on the fate of Fusarium mycotoxins, using laboratory-scale silos and artificially contaminated raw material. A multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method was used to determine the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and their derivatives DON-3-glucoside, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON, deepoxy-DON, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol. A significant increase of DON was observed during ensiling, whereas the levels of DON-3-glucoside and its acetylated forms proportionally decreased. In contrast, levels of ZEN, α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol were not affected by the ensiling process. Based on these findings, ensiling is not a practical method for reducing the total amount of Fusarium mycotoxins present at harvest.

Keywords

Fusarium Mycotoxin Degradation Feed Modified mycotoxin HRMS 

Abbreviations

15-AcDON

15-Acetyl-deoxynivalenol

3-AcDON

3-Acetyl-deoxynivalenol

CCβ

Detection capability

CV

Coefficient of variation

DM

Dry matter

DOM-1

Deepoxy-deoxynivalenol

DON

Deoxynivalenol

DON3G

Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside

FW

Fresh weight

LC-HRMS

Liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry

SD

Standard deviation

VER

Verrucarol

ZEN

Zearalenone

α-ZEL

α-Zearalenol

β-ZEL

β-Zearalenol

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the statistical support of Mario Hasler and the technical assistances of Nicole Lau, Linda Kettler, Daniel Weber and Friedrich Bornemann. Furthermore, they want to thank Markus Schemmel and Thomas Bergmann for proofreading and Siegfried Wolffram for providing the Savant SPD 2010 SpeedVacTM.

Funding information

This work was funded by the H. Wilhelm Schaumann Stiftung.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12550_2019_378_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 17 kb)

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Copyright information

© Society for Mycotoxin (Research Gesellschaft für Mykotoxinforschung e.V.) and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tolke Jensen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marthe De Boevre
    • 2
  • Sarah De Saeger
    • 2
  • Nils Preußke
    • 3
  • Frank D. Sönnichsen
    • 3
  • Ewald Kramer
    • 4
  • Holger Klink
    • 1
  • Joseph-Alexander Verreet
    • 1
  • Tim Birr
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of PhytopathologyKiel UniversityKielGermany
  2. 2.Centre of Excellence in Mycotoxicology and Public HealthGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  3. 3.Otto Diels Institute for Organic ChemistryKiel UniversityKielGermany
  4. 4.ISF GmbHPinnebergGermany

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