Advertisement

Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in maize and sorghum in Togo

  • Dèdè M. HanviEmail author
  • P. Lawson-Evi
  • M. De Boevre
  • C. E. Goto
  • S. De Saeger
  • K. Eklu-Gadegbeku
Review
  • 22 Downloads

Abstract

Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites frequently affecting agronomical crops and consequently imposing a major challenge for food safety and public health. In this study, a total of 67 raw cereals (55 maize and 12 sorghum) were collected from the market of Togo. The samples were investigated on the occurrence of 21 mycotoxins using state-of-the-art high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The most frequent occurring mycotoxins were fumonisins (88 and 67% for maize and sorghum respectively) with concentrations ranging from 101 to 1838 μg/kg for maize and 81.5 to 361 μg/kg for sorghum, respectively. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in 38% of the maize samples with maximum contamination levels of 256 μg/kg, and 25% of the sorghum samples (range 6–16 μg/kg). The concentrations of aflatoxins were high in maize, with some cases exceeding the maximum legislative limits (EU) for unprocessed maize placed on the market. In addition to these high contamination levels, the co-occurrence of three classes of mycotoxins (i.e., aflatoxins, fumonisins, and trichothecenes) was observed in this study. For the first time, the multi-mycotoxins occurrence in agronomical crops in Togo was reported.

Keywords

Mycotoxins Co-occurrence Togo Maize Sorghum 

Notes

Funding information

This research was funded by West African Agricultural Productivity Program (WAAPP) and MYTOX-SOUTH. The authors wish to express gratitude to these organizations for the financial support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abia WA, Warth B, Sulyok M, Krska R, Tchana AN, Njobeh PB, Dutton MF, Moundipa PF (2013) Determination of multi-mycotoxin occurrence in cereals, nuts and their products in Cameroon by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Food Control 31:438–453.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.10.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adejumo TO, Hettwer U, Karlovsky P (2007) Occurrence of Fusarium species and trichothecenes in Nigerian maize. Int J Food Microbiol 116:350–357.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.02.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ayalew A, Fehrmann H, Lepschy J, Beck R, Abate D (2006) Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in staple cereals from Ethiopia. Mycopathologia 162:57–63.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11046-006-0027-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bandyopadhyay R, Kumar M, LeslieJ F (2007) Relative severity of aflatoxin contamination of cereal crops in West Africa. Food Addit Contam 24:1109–1114.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030701553251 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bankole SA, Adebanjo A (2003) Mycotoxins in food in West Africa: current situation and possibilities of controlling it. Afr J Biotechnol 2:254–263.  https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB2003.000-1053 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bankole S, Schollenberger M, Drochner W (2006) Mycotoxins in food systems in Sub Saharan Africa: a review. Mycotoxin Res 22:16–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burger HM, Lombard MJ, Shephard GS, Rheeder JR, van der Westhuizen L, Gelderblom WCA (2010) Dietary fumonisin exposure in a rural population of South Africa. Food Chem Toxicol 48:2103–2108.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2010.05.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Calvo AM (2008) The VeA regulatory system and its role in morphological and chemical development in fungi. Fungal Genet Biol 45:1053–1061.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fgb.2008.03.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Castegnaro M, Canadas D, Vrabcheva T, Petkova-Bocharova T, Chernozemsky IN, Pfohl-Leszkowicz A (2006) Balkan endemic nephropathy: role of ochratoxins a through biomarkers. Mol Nutr Food Res 50:519–529.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200500182 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chala A, Taye W, Ayalew A, Krska R, Sulyok M, Logrieco A (2014) Multimycotoxin analysis of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Garten) from Ethiopia. Food Control 45:29–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.04.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chilaka CA, De Boevre M, Atanda OO, De Saeger S (2017) The status of Fusarium mycotoxins in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review of emerging trends and post-harvest mitigation strategies towards food control. Toxins 9:19.  https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins9010019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chu FS, Li GY (1994) Simultaneous occurrence of fumonisin B1 and other mycotoxins in moldy corn collected from People’s Republic of China in regions with high incidences of esophageal cancer. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:847–852Google Scholar
  13. Codex Alimentarius Commission (1995) Codex general standard for contaminants and toxins in food and feed. http://www.fao.org/input/download/standards/17/CXS_193f_2015.pdf. Accessed March 2018
  14. Creppy EE (2002) Update of survey, regulation and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe. Toxicol Lett 127:19–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4274(01)00479-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dudoiu R, Cristea S, Popa D, Lupu C, Oprea M (2016) The influence of several abiotic factors on Fusarium spp. biology. Sci Bull Ser F Biotechnol 20:34–39Google Scholar
  16. EAC (East African Community) (2013a) Maize grains-specification in East African Standard, 3rd edn. Arusha, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  17. EAC (East African Community) (2013b) Sorghum grains-specification in East African Standard, 1st edn. Arusha, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  18. EC (European Commission) (2006) European Commission regulation no. 401/ 2006 of 23 February 2006 laying down the methods of sampling and analysis for the official control of the levels of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. Off J Eur Union L70:12–34Google Scholar
  19. Ediage NE, Di Mavungu JD, Monbaliu S, Van Peteghem C, De Saeger S (2011) A validated multianalyte LC–MS/MS method for quantification of 25 mycotoxins in cassava flour, peanut cake and maize samples. J Agric Food Chem 59:5173–5180.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf2009364 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ediage EN, Van Poucke C, De Saeger S (2015) A multi-analyte LC–MS/MS method for the analysis of 23 mycotoxins in different sorghum varieties: the forgotten sample matrix. Food Chem 177:397–404.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.01.060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Egal S, Hounsa A, Gong YY, Turner PC, Wild CP, Hall AJ, Hell K, Cardwell KF (2005) Dietary exposure to aflatoxin from maize and groundnut in young children from Benin and Togo, West Africa. Int J Food Microbiol 104:215–224.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.03.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fandohan P, Hell K, Marasas WFO, Wingfield MJ (2003) Infection of maize by Fusarium species and contamination with fumonisin in Africa. Afr J Biotechnol 2:570–579.  https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB2003.000-1110 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fandohan P, Gnonlonfin B, Hell K, Marasas WFO, Wingfield MJ (2005) Impact of indigenous storage systems and insect infestation on the contamination of maize with fumonisins. Afr J Biotechnol 5:546–552Google Scholar
  24. FAO (2004) Food and Nutrition Papers-81. Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed in 2003. http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5499e/y5499e00.htm. Accessed March 2018
  25. Geary PA, Chen G, Kimanya ME, Shirima CP, Oplatowska-Stachowiak M, Elliott CT, Routledge MN, Gong YY (2016) Determination of multi-mycotoxin occurrence in maize based porridges from selected regions of Tanzania by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), a longitudinal study. Food Control 68:337–343.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.04.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ghali R, Belouaer I, Hdiri S, Ghorbel H, Maaroufi K, Hedilli A (2009) Simultaneous HPLC determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in Tunisian sorghum and pistachios. J Food Compos Anal 22:751–755.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2009.04.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hassen W, Abid-Essafi S, Achour A, Guezzah N, ZakhamaA EF, Creppy EE, Bacha H (2004) Karyomegaly of tubular kidney cells in human chronic interstitial nephropathy in Tunisia: respective role of ochratoxin a and possible genetic predisposition. Hum Exp Toxicol 2:339–346.  https://doi.org/10.1191/0960327104ht458oa CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ibáñez-Vea M, Martínez R, González Peñas E, Lizarraga E, López de Cerain A (2011) Co-occurrence of aflatoxins, ochratoxin a and zearalenone in breakfast cereals from Spanish market. Food Control 22:1949–1955.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2011.05.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. James B, Adda C, Cardwell K, Annang D, Hell K, Korie S, Edorh M, Gbeassor F, Nagatey K, Houenou G (2007) Public information campaign on aflatoxin contamination of maize grains in market stores in Benin, Ghana and Togo. Food Addit Contam 24:1283–1291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kim DH, Hong SY, Kang JW, Cho SM, Lee KR, An TK, Lee C, Chung SH (2017) Simultaneous determination of multi-mycotoxins in cereal grains collected from South Korea by LC/MS/MS. Toxins 9:106.  https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins9030106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kpodo K, Thrane U, Hald B (2000) Fusaria and fumonisins in maize from Ghana and their co-occurrence with aflatoxins. Int J Food Microbiol 61:147–157.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(00)00370-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Li R, Wang X, Zhou T, Yang D, Wang Q, Zhou Y (2014) Occurrence of four mycotoxins in cereal and oil products in Yangtze Delta region of China and their food safety risks. Food Control 35:117–122.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.06.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Makun AH, Gbodi TA, Olufunmilayo HA, Salako AE, Ogbadu HG (2009) Fungi and some mycotoxins found in Mouldy Sorghum in Niger State, Nigeria. World J Agric Sci 5:05–17Google Scholar
  34. Mngqawa P, Shephard GS, Green IR, Ngobeni SH, de Rijk TC, Katerer DR (2016) Mycotoxin contamination of home-grown maize in rural northern South Africa (Limpopo and Mpumalanga Provinces). Food Addit Contam Part B 9:38–45.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19393210.2015.1121928 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Monbaliu S, Van Poucke C, Detavernier C, Dumoulin F, Van De Velde M, Schoeters E (2010) Occurrence of mycotoxins in feed as analyzed by a multi-mycotoxin LC-MS/MS method. J Agric Food Chem 58:66–71.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf903859z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moreno EC, Garcia GT, Ono MA, Vizoni É, Kawamura O, Hirooka EY, Sataque Ono EY (2009) Co-occurrence of mycotoxins in corn samples from the northern region of Paraná State, Brazil. Food Chem 116:220–226.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.02.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mwalwayo DS, Thole B (2016) Prevalence of aflatoxin and fumonisins (B1+ B2) in maize consumed in rural Malawi. Toxicol Rep 3:173–179.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2016.01.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Oueslati S, Blesa J, Moltó JC, Ghorbel A, Mañes J (2014) Presence of mycotoxins in sorghum and intake estimation in Tunisia. Food Addit Contam 31:307–318.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2013.867367 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pantenius CU (1988) Storage losses in traditional maize granaries in Togo. Int J Trop Insect Sci 9:725–735.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742758400005610 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pitt JI (2000) Toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins. Br Med Bull Br Council 56:184–192.  https://doi.org/10.1258/0007142001902888 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ranum P, Peña-Rosas JP, Garcia-Casa MN (2014) Global maize production, utilization, and consumption. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1312:105–112.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nyas.12396 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ratnavathi CV, Sashidhar RB (2000) Changes in enzyme activities and aflatoxin elaboration in sorghum genotypes following Aspergillus parasiticus infestation. J Sci Food Agric 80:1713–1721.  https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0010(20000915)80:12<1713::AID-JSFA698>3.0.CO;2-T CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rensburg BJ, Mc Laren NW, Flett BC (2017) Grain colonization by fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. and fumonisin synthesis in South African commercial maize in relation to prevailing weather conditions. Crop Prot 102:129–136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2017.08.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Saènz de Rodriguez CA, Bongiovanni AM, Conde de Borrego L (1985) An epidemic of precious development in Puerto Rican children. J Pediatr 107:393–396.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3476(85)80513-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Salem NM, Ahmad R (2010) Mycotoxins in food from Jordan: preliminary survey. Food Control 21:1099–1103.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.01.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sangare-Tigori B, Moukha S, Kouadjo JH, Betbeder A, Dano DS, Creppy E (2007) Co-occurrence of aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin a and zearalenone in cereals and peanuts form Côte d’ivoire. Food Addit Contam 23:1000–1007.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02652030500415686 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sherif OS, Emad ES, Mosaad AA (2009) Mycotoxins and child health. The need for health risk assessment. Int J Hyg Environ Health 212:347–368.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2008.08.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ssepuuya G, Van Poucke C, Ediage EN, Mulholland C, Tritscher A, Verger P, Kenny M, Bessy C, De Saeger S (2018) Mycotoxin contamination of sorghum and its contribution to human dietary exposure in four sub-Saharan countries. Food Addit Contam Part A 35:1384–1393.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2018.1461253 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Vismer HF, Shephard GS, Rheeder JP, van der Westhuizen L, Bandyopadhyay R (2015) Relative severity of fumonisin contamination of cereal crops in West Africa. Food Addit Contam 32:1952–1958.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2015.1084654 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Warth B, Parich A, Atehnkeng J, Bandyopadhyay R, Schuhmacher R, Sulyok M, Krska R (2012) Quantitation of mycotoxins in food and feed from Burkina Faso and Mozambique using a modern lc-ms/ms multitoxin method. J Agric Food Chem 60:9352–9363.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf302003n CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yogendrarajah P, Jacxsens L, Lachat C, Walpita CN, Kolsteren P, De Saeger S, De Meulenae B (2014) Public health risk associated with the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in spices consumed in Sri Lanka. Food Chem Toxicol 74:240–248.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2014.10.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Mycotoxin (Research Gesellschaft für Mykotoxinforschung e.V.) and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food Control LaboratoryAgronomic Research InstituteLoméTogo
  2. 2.Department of Animal PhysiologyLomé UniversityLoméTogo
  3. 3.Department of Bioanalysis, Centre of Excellence in Mycotoxicology & Public HealthGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

Personalised recommendations