Mycotoxin Research

, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 329–340 | Cite as

Volatile 1-octen-3-ol increases patulin production by Penicillium expansum on a patulin-suppressing medium

  • Kayla K. PennermanEmail author
  • Joseph B. Scarsella
  • Guo-Hua Yin
  • Sui-Sheng T. Hua
  • Thomas G. Hartman
  • Joan W. Bennett
Original Article


1-Octen-3-ol is one of the most abundant volatile compounds associated with fungi and functions as a germination and growth inhibitor in several species. By investigating its effect on the biosynthesis of patulin, a mycotoxin made by Penicillium expansum, it was found that a sub-inhibitory level of volatile 1-octen-3-ol increased accumulation of patulin on a medium that normally suppresses the mycotoxin. Transcriptomic sequencing and comparisons of control and treated P. expansum grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA; patulin permissive) or secondary medium agar (SMA; patulin suppressive) revealed that the expression of gox2, a gene encoding a glucose oxidase, was significantly affected, decreasing 10-fold on PDA and increasing 85-fold on SMA. Thirty other genes, mostly involved in transmembrane transport, oxidation-reduction, and carbohydrate metabolism were also differently expressed on the two media. Transcription factors previously found to be involved in regulation of patulin biosynthesis were not significantly affected despite 1-octen-3-ol increasing patulin production on SMA. Further study is needed to determine the relationship between the upregulation of patulin biosynthesis genes and gox2 on SMA, and to identify the molecular mechanism by which 1-octen-3-ol induced this effect.


gox2 1-Octen-3-ol Patulin Penicillium expansum Transcriptome Volatile 



Dimethyl sulfoxide


Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry


Gene ontology


Principal component analysis


Potato dextrose agar


Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction


Secondary medium agar


Thin-layer chromatography


Sources of funding

This work was funded by the 2018 Rutgers TA/GA Professional Development Fund and the USDA-ARS Non-Assistance Cooperative Agreement (no. 58-2030-6-053). Use of a company or product name by the United States Department of Agriculture does not imply approval or recommendation of the product to the exclusion of others that may be suitable.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest



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© Society for Mycotoxin (Research Gesellschaft für Mykotoxinforschung e.V.) and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant Biology, Rutgers UniversityThe State University of New JerseyNew BrunswickUSA
  2. 2.Department of Food Science, Rutgers UniversityThe State University of New JerseyNew BrunswickUSA
  3. 3.Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention Research, United States Department of AgricultureAgricultural Research ServiceAlbanyUSA

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