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Mycotoxin Research

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 47–53 | Cite as

Aflatoxin M1 in cow, sheep, and donkey milk produced in Sicily, Southern Italy

  • Gaetano CammilleriEmail author
  • Stefania Graci
  • Rosaria Collura
  • Maria Drussilla Buscemi
  • Antonio Vella
  • Andrea Macaluso
  • Vita Giaccone
  • Giuseppe Giangrosso
  • Antonello Cicero
  • Gianluigi Maria Lo Dico
  • Andrea Pulvirenti
  • Nicola Cicero
  • Vincenzo Ferrantelli
Original Article
  • 104 Downloads

Abstract

Samples (n = 485) of raw (n = 394) or heat-treated (n = 91) milk of three different species (cow, n = 170; sheep, n = 133; donkey, n = 84), collected 2013–2016 in Western Sicily (Southern Italy), were analyzed for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive ELISA results were further analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Both methods had a detection limit for AFM1 in milk of 7 ng kg−1. ELISA yielded 12.9 and 5% positives in cows and sheep milk, respectively, all samples of donkey milk were negative. Levels of AFM1 were in most cases at 0.007–< 0.05 μg kg−1, only two samples (sheep milk) slightly exceeded the European Union maximum level of 0.05 μg kg−1. Only 6% of the samples were positive for AFM1 in a concentration range of 0.008–0.15 μg kg−1. Only milk samples collected directly from farms were positive. Overall, the levels were much lower than previously reported for Southern Italy cow and sheep milk samples purchased in retail stores. The results of this work indicate a continuous improvement of the feeding techniques on dairy farms of Southern Italy, which is essential to ensure consumers’ protection.

Keywords

Aflatoxin Milk Donkey ELISA HPLC-FLD 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaetano Cammilleri
    • 1
    Email author return OK on get
  • Stefania Graci
    • 1
  • Rosaria Collura
    • 1
  • Maria Drussilla Buscemi
    • 1
  • Antonio Vella
    • 1
  • Andrea Macaluso
    • 1
  • Vita Giaccone
    • 1
  • Giuseppe Giangrosso
    • 1
  • Antonello Cicero
    • 1
  • Gianluigi Maria Lo Dico
    • 1
  • Andrea Pulvirenti
    • 2
  • Nicola Cicero
    • 3
  • Vincenzo Ferrantelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sicilia “A. Mirri”PalermoItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento Scienze della VitaUniversità degli studi di Modena e Reggio EmiliaModenaItaly
  3. 3.Dipartimento SASTASUniversità degli studi di Messina, Polo Universitario dell’AnnunziataMessinaItaly

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