Stability of fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and T-2 toxin during processing of traditional Nigerian beer and spices
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The stability of the Fusarium mycotoxins fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone during processing of Nigerian traditional spices (dawadawa, okpehe, and ogiri) and beer (burukutu) using artificially contaminated raw materials was investigated. Results revealed the reduction of these toxins in all the final products. Boiling played a significant role (p < 0.05) in Fusarium mycotoxin reduction in the traditional spices. The highest percentage reduction of deoxynivalenol (76%) and zearalenone (74%) was observed during okpehe processing (boiled for 12 h). Dehulling and fermentation further demonstrated a positive influence on the reduction of these toxins with a total reduction ranging from 85 to 98% for dawadawa, 86 to 100% for okpehe, and 57 to 81% for ogiri. This trend was also observed during the production of traditional beer (burukutu), with malting and brewing playing a major impact in observed reduction. In addition, other metabolites including deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, α-zearalenol, and β-zearalenol which were initially not present in the raw sorghum were detected in the final beer product at the following concentrations 26 ± 11, 16 ± 7.7, 22 ± 18, and 31 ± 16 μg/kg, respectively. HT-2 toxin was also detected at a concentration of 36 ± 13 μg/kg along the processing chain (milled malted fraction) of the traditional beer. For the traditional spices, HT-2 toxin was detected (12 μg/kg) in ogiri. Although there was a reduction of mycotoxins during processing, appreciable concentrations of these toxins were still detected in the final products. Thus, the use of good quality raw materials significantly reduces mycotoxin contamination in final products.
KeywordsFusarium mycotoxin Modified mycotoxin Traditional spice Traditional beer Food processing Nigeria
The authors would like to thank Christ’l Detavernier and Mario Van de Velde of the Laboratory of Food Analysis, Ghent University, Belgium, for their technical assistance in the course of this study. The authors acknowledge the assistance (sample survey) of Dr. Jude E. Obidiegwu, Yam Programme, the National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike, Nigeria.
Source of funding
This study was funded by Ghent University Special Research Fund (BOF 01W01014).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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