Mycotoxin Research

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 229–239 | Cite as

Stability of fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and T-2 toxin during processing of traditional Nigerian beer and spices

  • Cynthia Adaku ChilakaEmail author
  • Marthe De Boevre
  • Olusegun Oladimeji Atanda
  • Sarah De Saeger
Original Article


The stability of the Fusarium mycotoxins fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone during processing of Nigerian traditional spices (dawadawa, okpehe, and ogiri) and beer (burukutu) using artificially contaminated raw materials was investigated. Results revealed the reduction of these toxins in all the final products. Boiling played a significant role (p < 0.05) in Fusarium mycotoxin reduction in the traditional spices. The highest percentage reduction of deoxynivalenol (76%) and zearalenone (74%) was observed during okpehe processing (boiled for 12 h). Dehulling and fermentation further demonstrated a positive influence on the reduction of these toxins with a total reduction ranging from 85 to 98% for dawadawa, 86 to 100% for okpehe, and 57 to 81% for ogiri. This trend was also observed during the production of traditional beer (burukutu), with malting and brewing playing a major impact in observed reduction. In addition, other metabolites including deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, α-zearalenol, and β-zearalenol which were initially not present in the raw sorghum were detected in the final beer product at the following concentrations 26 ± 11, 16 ± 7.7, 22 ± 18, and 31 ± 16 μg/kg, respectively. HT-2 toxin was also detected at a concentration of 36 ± 13 μg/kg along the processing chain (milled malted fraction) of the traditional beer. For the traditional spices, HT-2 toxin was detected (12 μg/kg) in ogiri. Although there was a reduction of mycotoxins during processing, appreciable concentrations of these toxins were still detected in the final products. Thus, the use of good quality raw materials significantly reduces mycotoxin contamination in final products.


Fusarium mycotoxin Modified mycotoxin Traditional spice Traditional beer Food processing Nigeria 



The authors would like to thank Christ’l Detavernier and Mario Van de Velde of the Laboratory of Food Analysis, Ghent University, Belgium, for their technical assistance in the course of this study. The authors acknowledge the assistance (sample survey) of Dr. Jude E. Obidiegwu, Yam Programme, the National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike, Nigeria.

Source of funding

This study was funded by Ghent University Special Research Fund (BOF 01W01014).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12550_2018_318_MOESM1_ESM.docx (25 kb)
Table S1 (DOCX 24 kb)


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Copyright information

© Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cynthia Adaku Chilaka
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Marthe De Boevre
    • 1
  • Olusegun Oladimeji Atanda
    • 3
  • Sarah De Saeger
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Food Analysis, Department of Bioanalysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Applied Food Science and TourismMichael Okpara University of AgricultureUmuahia PMB 7267Nigeria
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesMcPherson UniversityOgun StateNigeria

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