Research note: What kind of individual-level effects of childbearing would we ideally be interested in learning about? The important distinction between expected, unexpected, varying and general effects
- 21 Downloads
Some consequences of childbearing for the parents and children are partly expected by the parents, while others to a larger extent are unexpected. Also, some are rather general while others vary greatly between individuals. In principle, it would be valuable for individual fertility decision-makers to learn about consequences of childbearing that they are currently not aware of. This can be achieved by disseminating existing expert knowledge about effects that are likely to be poorly known to the public, and by doing further research on effects of childbearing. Knowledge about effects that are rather general, such as those involving physiological mechanisms, would be particularly valuable. Other effects, which may be described as social–behavioural, are to a larger extent expected and varying, and are therefore both harder to estimate and less important for individual decision-makers to learn about. For politicians and planners, knowledge about all types of consequences may be helpful, and perhaps especially those that are rather general.
KeywordsConsequences Fertility Expected Unexpected Policy Decision-making
Comments from two reviewers are greatly appreciated. An earlier version of the paper was presented as a Süssmilch Lecture at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research.
Funding was provided by Norwegian Research Council (Centre of Excellence funding scheme, project number 262700).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The author declares that there is no conflict of interest.
- Black, S. E., Devereux, P. J., & Salvanes, K. G. (2005). The more the merrier? The effects of family size and birth order on children’s education. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 120, 669–700.Google Scholar
- Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. (2002). Breast cancer and breastfeeding: Collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50 302 women with breast cancer and 96 973 women without the disease. The Lancet, 360(9328), 187–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kahneman, D. (1999). Objective well-being. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwartz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology. New York: Russel Sage Foundation.Google Scholar