Investigation into Hand Impact Force During Forward Falls on Uneven Terrain
- 32 Downloads
Outdoor falls predominantly occur because of environmental factors, such as tripping caused by uneven terrain; as a result, the faller may land on an uneven surface. Forward falls are among the most frequent causes of fractures. Previous investigations concentrated on the evaluation of impact forces acting on the hand/wrist on even terrains; however, further studies are necessary to evaluate the impact force during forward falls on uneven surfaces, which may occur frequently in daily activities. This study investigated the distal/proximal hand impact force during forward falls on even/uneven terrain. A series of fall experiments in which the distal and proximal areas of the hand contacted the ground simultaneously (even surface) or at different times (uneven surface) was conducted. The results showed that the magnitude of the peak impact forces acting on the distal and proximal areas are strongly associated with the terrain shape and the contact timing. Although in all experiments, a significant portion of the impact force was exerted on the proximal area of the hand, the earlier distal-ground contact reduced the peak proximal impact force significantly. The results of this study are beneficial for finding strategies to reduce fall-related injuries and the design of protective gloves and wrist guards to satisfy fracture prevention requirements.
KeywordsForward fall Distal and proximal areas of the hand Impact force Uneven ground
This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26750121 and 30813787, and METI (Ministry of Economy) “Strategic international standardization promotion project: International standardization of human tolerance against fall injuries”.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no financial relationships that may cause a conflict of interest.
- 2.Mitsuoka, K., Akiyama, Y., Yamada, Y., & Okamoto. S. (2015). Analysis of skip motion as a recovery strategy after an induced trip. In Proceedings of 2015 IEEE international conference on systems, man, and cybernetics. https://doi.org/10.1109/smc.2015.167.
- 9.Rajaei, N., Abdolshah, S., Akiyama, Y., Yamada, Y., & Okamoto, S. (2018). Rigid material on top of a compliant flooring effectively reduces the impact force in the event of a forward fall. In 2018 IEEE international conference on intelligence and safety for robotics (ISR) (pp. 273–277).Google Scholar
- 14.Abdolshah, S., Akiyama, Y., Mitsuoka, K., Yamada, Y., & Okamoto. S. (2017). Analysis of upper extremity motion during trip-induced falls. In Proceedings of 26th IEEE international symposium on robot and human interactive communication (RO-MAN). https://doi.org/10.1109/roman.2017.8172500.
- 16.Degoede, K. M., Ashton-Miller, J. A., Liao, J. M., & Alexander, N. B. (2001). How quickly can healthy adults move their hands to intercept an approaching object? Age and gender effects. Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences,56(9), M584–M588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Sran, M. M., Stotz, P. J., Normandin, S. C., & Robinovitch, S. N. (2009). Age differences in energy absorption in the upper extremity during a descent movement: Implications for arresting a fall. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences,65(3), 312–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar