A New Approach to Quantify the Uniformity Grade of the Electrohydrodynamic Inkjet Printed Features and Optimization of Process Parameters Using Nature-Inspired Algorithms

  • Amit Kumar Ball
  • Shibendu Shekhar RoyEmail author
  • Dakshina Ranjan Kisku
  • Naresh Chandra Murmu
Regular Paper


Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) inkjet is one of the non-contact jet based promising technology to fabricate high-resolution features of functional materials with higher efficiency. Uniformity of the deposited droplets is one of the key demands of the EHD inkjet system for printing micro-features in microsensors, printed flexible electronics or various MEMS devices. In this study, a new methodology has been proposed to model the uniformity grade of the deposited droplets. In this present work, a significant improvement in the printing quality has been achieved with the help of some modern optimization methods coupled with some traditional statistical methods. Instead of a single fixed solution (may or may not be feasible), the proposed methodology suggests a feasible region with a large set of solutions. It extends the operators’ flexibility to choose from a wide range of input parameters which yield droplet depositions with higher uniformity. The proposed methodology is further evaluated with some experimental runs to fabricate discrete dots and continuous line patterns. This method is considered to be a promising and effective alternative offline approach to increase the uniformity of the droplets.


Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) inkjet printing Response surface methodology Central composite design Grey relational analysis Nature-inspired algorithms Particle swarm optimization Firefly algorithm Biogeography-based optimization Genetic algorithm 



Standoff height


Applied voltage


Ink flow rate


Electric field strength


Coefficient of determination


Biogeography based optimization


Commercial off-the-shelf technology


Central composite design




Design of experiments


Dissimilar distance from the desired straight line


Dissimilar center to center distance


Dissimilar droplet diameter




Firefly algorithm


Grey relation coefficient


Grey relation grade


Genetic algorithm


Particle swarm optimization


Response surface methodology



This research work financially sponsored by the Department of Science and Technology (Government of India, Order No DST/TSG/AMT/2015/342, dated 28.07.2016) India. The authors would like to express their gratitude to the Director, NIT Durgapur and the Director, CSIR-CMERI Durgapur for their continuous support and encouragement to carry out the present research work.


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Copyright information

© Korean Society for Precision Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amit Kumar Ball
    • 1
  • Shibendu Shekhar Roy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dakshina Ranjan Kisku
    • 1
  • Naresh Chandra Murmu
    • 2
  1. 1.National Institute of Technology DurgapurDurgapurIndia
  2. 2.Central Mechanical Engineering Research InstituteDurgapurIndia

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