Computational Design of the Compacted Wire Strand Model and Its Behavior Under Axial Elongation

  • C. ErdönmezEmail author
Regular Paper


Compacted wire strand is produced by applying compression to the readymade classical wire strand. Therefore, parametric mathematical curves that can create geometric cross-sectional shape of the center and outer wires are not available. The center and outer wires of compacted wire strand are formed with the help of the real cross-sectional compacted wire rope by using the developed computer code. Due to the compaction process cross-sections of the core wire and the outer single helical wires of the circular wire strand becomes to hexagonal and isosceles trapezoidal shapes respectively. The amount of gap in the cross-sectional area is decreased and the contact surfaces of the wires are increased by compaction process. As a result, the diameter of the compacted wire strand is decreased at the end of this process. After the modeling process, a finite element analysis is conducted by applying strain boundary condition to the compacted wire strand. The obtained results are compared with the analytical, test and the finite element analysis results obtained for the classical wire strand model and the good agreement between them is recognized. Meanwhile the analysis results showed that the contact forces are decreased due to the increased contact area between the outer wires of the compacted wire strand. This also proves that the compaction process increases the strength and life span of wire strands.


Wire strand Compacted wire strand Swaged strand Single helix Helical geometry Wire rope 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Velinsky, S. A. (1988). Design and mechanics of multi-lay wire strands. Transactions of ASME, Journal of Mechanics, Transmissions, and Automation in Design, 110, 152–160. Scholar
  2. 2.
    Costello, G. A. (1990). Theory of wire rope. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chiang, Y. J. (1996). Characterizing simple stranded wire cables under axial loading. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 24, 49–66. Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wang, R. C., Miscoe, A. J., McKewan, W. M. (1998). Model for the structure of round-strand wire ropes. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH), Publication No. 98-148, Report of Investigations. 9644:1-19Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jiang, W. G., Yao, M. S., & Walton, J. M. (1999). A concise finite element model for simple straight wire rope strand. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 41, 143–161. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jiang, W. G., & Henshall, J. L. (1999). The analysis of termination effects in wire strand using finite element method. Journal of Strain Analysis, 34(1), 31–38. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nawrocki, A., & Labrosse, M. (2000). A finite element model for simple straight wire rope strands. Computers & Structures, 77, 345–359. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rodriguez, R., Laspalas, M., Jiménez, M. A., Gomez, A. (2010). Development of a simplified wire rope model and application to a traction sheave-rope contact. Conference: MOSS 2010 (The Mechanics of slender structures), 21–23 July 2010, SpainGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stanova, E., Fedorko, G., Fabian, M., & Kmet, S. (2011). Computer modelling of wire strands and ropes. Part I: Theory and computer implementation. Advances in Engineering Software, 42(6), 305–315. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stanova, E., Fedorko, G., Fabian, M., & Kmet, S. (2011). Computer modelling of wire strands and ropes part II: Finite element-based applications. Advances in Engineering Software, 42(6), 322–331. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stanova, E., Fedorko, G., Kmet, S., Molnar, V., & Fabian, M. (2015). Finite element analysis of spiral strands with different shapes subjected to axial loads. Adv Eng Softw., 83, 45–58. (ISSN 0965-9978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ivanco, V., Kmet, S., & Fedorko, G. (2016). Finite element simulation of creep of spiral strands. Eng Struct., 117, 220–238. (ISSN 0141-0296).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Erdönmez, C., & İmrak, C. E. (2011). Modeling techniques of nested helical structure based geometry for numerical analysis. Strojniški vestnik Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 57(4), 283–292. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Erdönmez, C. (2018). Wire strand with complex shaped elliptic outer wires. Journal of Naval Sciences and Engineering., 14(2), 91–99.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bridon-Bekaert, The Ropes Group (2018). Accessed 23 Sep 2018
  16. 16.
    Utting, W. S., & Jones, N. (1987). The response of wire rope strands to axial tensile loads: Part I. Experimental results and theoretical predictions. International Journal of Mechanical Science, 29(9), 605–619. Scholar
  17. 17.
    Utting, W. S., & Jones, N. (1987). The response of wire rope strands to axial tensile loads: Part II. Experimental results and theoretical predictions. International Journal of Mechanical Science., 29(9), 621–636. Scholar
  18. 18.
    Thompson, J. F., Soni, B. K., & Weatherill, N. P. (1999). Handbook of grid generation. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Spekreijse, S. P., Nijhuis, G. H., Boerstoel, J. W. (1995). Elliptic surface grid generation on minimal and parametrized surfaces. NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS). 1995-01-01Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Precision Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Basic SciencesNational Defense UniversityTuzla, IstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations