A Study on Activation Algorithm of Finite Elements for Three-Dimensional Transient Heat Transfer Analysis of Directed Energy Deposition Process

  • Bih-Lii Chua
  • Ho-Jin Lee
  • Dong-Gyu AhnEmail author
  • Yeqing Wang
Short Communication


Heat transfer finite element analysis (FEA) for directed energy deposition (DED) process is crucial to properly estimate the residual stress in the additive manufactured part. The material deposition of the DED process is generally simulated by activation of finite elements. However, the activation algorithm of inactive finite elements is complicated. Besides, existing element activation algorithm is not suitable for highly focused energy source. In order to overcome these discrepancies, an inactive element activation algorithm with two-element cross section has been proposed for simulating a DED process using a high intensity laser heat flux. The nodal temperature during the element activation has been evaluated. The proposed algorithm has been implemented into the heat transfer FEAs for multilayer and planar depositions to investigate the applicability of the proposed algorithm. Finally, the results of FEAs using the proposed algorithm have been compared to those of commercial software SYSWELD.


Element activation algorithm Heat transfer analysis Directed energy deposition Finite element analysis 

List of Symbols


Mesh size in direction of deposition


Radius of laser beam


Step time


Relative velocity between heat source and substrate


x-Coordinate relative to moving frame of heat source


Half width of deposited bead


y-Coordinate relative to moving frame of heat source


Height of deposited bead


z-Coordinate relative to moving frame of heat source


Volumetric heat flux


Efficiency of laser


Input power of laser


Penetration depth of laser beam


x-Coordinate of node


Velocity in x-direction


Process time during the current deposition layer


y-Coordinate of node


Velocity in y-direction


z-Coordinate of node


Nodal temperature



This study was supported by research fund from Chosun University, 2017.


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Copyright information

© Korean Society for Precision Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bih-Lii Chua
    • 1
  • Ho-Jin Lee
    • 2
  • Dong-Gyu Ahn
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yeqing Wang
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringChosun UniversityGwangjuRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Extreme Fabrication Technology GroupKorea Institute of Industrial TechnologyGumiRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Aerospace EngineeringMississippi State UniversityMississippiUSA

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