An Investigation into the Formability and Processes of GLARE Materials Using Hydro-bulging Test

  • Liu ShichenEmail author
  • Lang Lihui
  • Guan Shiwei
Regular Paper


Our research mainly focuses on investigating the formability and processes of GLARE materials in the hydro-bulging test. Finite element simulation software ABAQUS/Explicit is applied to study the state of stress and strain as well as wall thickness distribution while experiments have done to validate the simulation results. The results indicate that cavity pressure and blank holder force have a significant effect on the forming behavior compared with traditional metal blanks. Curing process is also introduced in the production stage after first forming step. This study will increase the application of composite laminate manufacturing and open new ways for specialists working on high-strength lightweight material for future research.


Fiber metal laminate Hydro-bulging test Delamination Fracture Curing process 



The authors greatly acknowledge the financial support from National Science and Technology Major Project with Grant No. 2014ZX04002041 and National Science Foundation of China with Grant No. 51675029.


  1. 1.
    Asundi, A., & Choi, A. (1997). Fiber metal laminates: An advanced material for future aircraft. Journal of Material Process Technology, 63(1-3), 384–394.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Reyes, G., & Kang, H. (2007). Mechanical behavior of lightweight thermoplastic fiber–metal laminate. Journal of Material Process Technology, 186, 284–290.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tamer, S., & Egemen, A. (2010). A review: Fiber metal laminates, background, bonding types and applied test methods. Materials and Design, 32, 3671–3685.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vermeeren, C. A. (2003). A historical overview of the development of fiber-metal laminate. Journal of Composite Material, 10, 189–205.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vogelesang, L. B., & Gunnink, J. W. (1986). ARALL: A materials challenge for the next generation of aircraft. Journal of Material Design, 7, 287–300.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li, E., & Johnson, W. S. (1998). An investigation into the fatigue of hybrid titanium composite laminate. Journal of Composite Technology, 20(1), 3–12.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burianek, D. A., & Spearing, S. M. (2000). Delamination growth face sheet seams in cross-ply titanium/graphite hybrid laminates. Composite Science and Technology, 61, 261–269.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wu, G. C., & Yang, J. M. (2005). The mechanical behavior of GLARE laminates for aircraft structures. Failure in Structural Materials, 7(1), 72–79.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Botelho, E. C., & Silva, R. A. (2006). A review on the development and properties of continuous fiber/epoxy/aluminum hybrid composites for aircraft structures. Materials Research, 9(3), 247–256.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sang, Y. P., Won, J. C., & Heung, S. C. (2010). A comparative study on the properties of GLARE laminates cured by autoclave and autoclave consolidation followed by oven postcuring. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 49(5-8), 605–613.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dmitriev, O., Mischenko, S. (2011). Optimization of curing cycles for thick-wall products of the polymeric composite materials (pp. 141–160). INTECH Open Access Publisher, ISBN 978-953-307-150-3.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kumar, K. V., Safiullah, M., & Ahmad, A. (2013). Root cause analysis of heating rate deviations in autoclave curing of CFRP structures. International Journal of Innovative Research Study, 2(5), 369–378.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Olga, S., Adele, C., & Heinz, P. (2011). Metal–polymer–metal sandwiches with local metal reinforcements: A study on formability by deep drawing and bending. Composite Structures, 94(1), 1–7.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yanagimoto, J., & Ikeuchi, K. (2012). Sheet forming process of carbon fiber reinforced plastics for lightweight parts. Journal of CIRP Annals Manufacturing Technology, 61(1), 247–250.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mosse, L., Compston, P., & Cantwell, W. (2005). The effect of process temperature on the formability of fiber–metal laminates. Composite Part A, 36(8), 1158–1166.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Luke, M., Paul, C., & Wesley, J. (2006). Stamp forming of polypropylene based fibre–metal laminates: The effect of process variables on formability. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 172(2), 163–168.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rizwan, Z., Lang, L. H., & Zhang, R. J. (2015). Analysis of hydro-mechanical deep drawing and the effects of cavity pressure on quality of simultaneously formed three-layer Al alloy parts. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 80(9-12), 2117–2128.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rizwan, Z., Lang, L. H., & Zhang, R. J. (2016). Experimental and numerical evaluation of multilayer sheet forming process parameters for light weight structures using innovative methodology. International Journal of Material Forming, 9(1), 35–47.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sherkatghand, S., Lang, L. H., & Liu, S. C. (2017). An innovative approach to mass production of fiber metal laminate sheets. Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 33(5), 552–563.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Liu, S. C., Lang, L. H., & Ehsan, S. (2018). Investigation into the fiber orientation effect on the formability of GLARE materials in the stamp forming process. Applied Composite Materials, 25(2), 255–267.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang, Z. J., & Li, Y. (2007). Evaluation of forming limit in viscous pressure forming of automobile aluminum alloy 6k21-T4 sheet. Transactions of the Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 17, 1169–1174.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Correia, J. P., & Ahzi, S. (2013). Electromagnetic sheet bulging: Analysis of process parameters by FE simulations. Key Engineering Materials, 554, 741–748.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    He, Z. B., & Yuan, S. J. (2014). Analytical model for tube hydro-bulging tests, part II: Linear model for pole thickness and its application. International Journal of Mechanical Science, 87, 307–315.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mathew, M., & Thomas, B. (1997). Experimental characterization of autoclave-Cu red glass–epoxy composite laminates: Cure cycle effects upon thickness, void content, and related phenomena. Polymer Composites, 18(3), 283–299.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Park, E. T., Lee, B. E., & Kang, D. S. (2016). Analytical prediction of flow stress on aluminum alloy/self-reinforced polypropylene laminated sheet material considering temperature-dependent material constants. International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 17(4), 487–493.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jeon, K. W., Shin, K. B., & Kim, J. S. (2011). Evaluation of tension–compression and tension–tension fatigue life of woven fabric glass/epoxy laminate composites used in railway vehicle. International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 12(5), 813–820.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Abebe, M., Park, J. W., & Kim, J. (2017). Numerical verification on formability of metallic alloys for skin structure using multi-point die-less forming. International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 18(2), 263–272.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hong, S. W., Ahn, S. S., & Li, H. (2013). Charpy impact fracture characteristics of CFRP composite materials according to the variation of fiber array direction and temperature. International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 14(2), 253–258.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Precision Engineering 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical Engineering and AutomationBeijing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations