Analysis on Wear Phenomenon of Artificial Knee Joint Based on FEM and Mechanical Test

  • Yeo-Kyung Kang
  • Mun-Hee Kim
  • Jae-Won Kim
  • Trinh Ngoc Tien
  • Do-hyung Lim
  • Heoung-Jae ChunEmail author
Regular Paper


Fretting corrosion is studied to understand its influence on the structural integrity of osteosynthesis implants between contact areas of artificial joints. With the artificial knee joints becoming more important comes a growing concern that the friction corrosion at the interface of an artificial knee joint may cause the shortening of its life. This paper aims to analyze the wear phenomenon following the material characteristics on the structural integrity of osteosynthesis implants between the contact areas of artificial joints with fretting corrosion. A finite element analysis was conducted to confirm the stress concentration position at the contact area during load application. Concentrated stress occurred in the central part of the modular tibial tray and the augment joint. The modular artificial knee joints were threaded and subjected to loads up to 90 N to 900 N and 20 Hz frequency according to the fatigue test method of ASTM F1800-12 and ASTM F 1875–98. The fatigue test showed no visual fracture caused by the cyclic load on the contact portion after 10,000,000cycles. However, mechanically assisted corrosion is a serious concern for metallic biomaterials in all applications. Therefore, additional research on the surface morphology of the material is needed to determine the wear mechanism.


FEM analysis Fretting corrosion Knee implant Tibial tray Augmentation Wear 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Zietz, C., Bergschmidt, P., Lange, R., Mittelmeier, W., and Bader, R., “Third-Body Abrasive Wear of Tibial Polyethylene Inserts Combined with Metallic and Ceramic Femoral Components in a Knee Simulator Study,” The International Journal of Artificial Organs, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 47–55, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hallab, N. J. and Jacobs, J. J., “Orthopedic Implant Fretting Corrosion,” Corrosion Reviews, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 183–213, 2003.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Virtanen, S., Milošev, I., Gomez-Barrena, E., Trebše, R., Salo, J., and Konttinen, Y., “Special Modes of Corrosion under Physiological and Simulated Physiological Conditions,” Acta Biomaterialia, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 468–476, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hoeppner, D. W. and Chandrasekaran, V., “Fretting in Orthopaedic Implants: A Review,” Wear, Vol. 173, Nos. 1–2, pp. 189–197, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Billi, F., Benya, P., Ebramzadeh, E., Campbell, P., Chan, F., and McKellop, H. A., “Metal Wear Particles: What We Know, What We Do Not Know, and Why,” SAS Journal, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 133–142, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hexter, A., Panagiotidou, A., Singh, J., Skinner, J., and Hart, A., “Mehanism of Corrosion in Large Diameter Head Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Retireval Analysis of 161 Components,” Bone Joint Journal-British Volume, Vol. 95-B, No. SUPP 12, p. 4, 2013.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cooper, H. J., Della Valle, C. J., Berger, R. A., Tetreault, M., Paprosky, W. G., et al., “Corrosion at the Head-Neck Taper as a Cause for Adverse Local Tissue Reactions after Total Hip Arthroplasty,” The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume, Vol. 94, No. 18, pp. 1655–1661, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Higgs, G. B., Hanzlik, J. A., MacDonald, D. W., Gilbert, J. L., Rimnac, C. M., and Kurtz, S. M., “Is Increased Modularity Associated with Increased Fretting and Corrosion Damage in Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty Devices?: A Retrieval Study,” The Journal of Arthroplasty, Vol. 28, No. 8, pp. 2–6, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Higgs, G., Hanzlik, J., MacDonald, D., Kane, W., Day, J., et al., “Method of Characterizing Fretting and Corrosion at the Various Taper Connections of Retrieved Modular Components from Metalon-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty,” Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Replacement Devices, ASTM International, SRP1560, 2013.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goldberg, J. R., Gilbert, J. L., Jacobs, J. J., Bauer, T. W., Paprosky, W., and Leurgans, S., “A Multicenter Retrieval Study of the Taper Interfaces of Modular Hip Prostheses,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®, Vol. 401, pp. 149–161, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Srinivasan, A., Jung, E., and Levine, B. R., “Modularity of the Femoral Component in Total Hip Arthroplasty,” JAAOS-Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 214–222, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Urban, R., Hall, D., Cooper, H., Valle, C., Galante, J., and Jacobs, J., “Local Histological and Systemic Effects of Metal Corrosion Products,” Proc. of the Hip Society Meeting, 2013.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brown, S. A. and Merritt, K., “Fretting Corrosion of Plates and Screws: An in vitro Test Method,” Corrosion and Degradation of Implant Materials: Second Symposium, ASTM International, STP859, 1985.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brown, S., “Fretting Corrosion of Orthopaedic Implants,” Compatability of Biomedical Implants, pp. 42–47, 1994.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Polyzois, I., Nikolopoulos, D., Michos, I., Patsouris, E., and Theocharis, S., “Local and Systemic Toxicity of Nanoscale Debris Particles in Total Hip Arthroplasty,” Journal of Applied Toxicology, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 255–269, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Long, W. J. and Scuderi, G. R., “Porous Tantalum Cones for Large Metaphyseal Tibial Defects in Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Minimum 2-Year Follow-Up,” The Journal of Arthroplasty, Vol. 24, No. 7, pp. 1086–1092, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Meneghini, R. M., Lewallen, D. G., and Hanssen, A. D., “Use of Porous Tantalum Metaphyseal Cones for Severe Tibial Bone Loss During Revision Total Knee Replacement,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Vol. 90, No. 1, pp. 78–84, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cuckler, J. M., “Bone Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty: Graft Augment and Options 1 No Benefits or Funds were Received in Support of this Study,” The Journal of Arthroplasty, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 56–58, 2018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stulberg, S. D., “Five-Year Follow-Up of a Tantalum, Monoblock Acetabular Component,” The Journal of Arthroplasty, Vol. 19, No. 2, p. 257, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Villanueva-Martínez, M., De la Torre-Escudero, B., Rojo-Manaute, J. M., Ríos-Luna, A., and Chana-Rodriguez, F., “Tantalum Cones in Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty. A Promising Short-Term Result with 29 Cones in 21 Patients,” The Journal of Arthroplasty, Vol. 28, No. 6, pp. 988–993, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Urban, R., Hall, D., Gilbert, J., Dahlmeier, E., Wright, J., et al., “Are Fretting and Corrosion Reduced in Contemporary Head/Neck Modular Junctions,” Proc. of the ORS Annual Meeting, 2012.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Moga, I., Harrington, M., and Noble, P., “Variables Influencing Tribo-Corrosion of Modular Junctions in Metal-on-Polyethylene THR,” Proc. of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, 2014.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Park, K.-H. and Chang, I.-T., “Osseointegration of Anodized Titanium Implants,” The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 267–277, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    McMaster, W. C. and Patel, J., “Adverse Local Tissue Response Lesion of the Knee Associated with Morse Taper Corrosion,” The Journal of Arthroplasty, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 375. e375–375. e378, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ruggiero, A., Merola, M., and Affatato, S., “On the Biotribology of Total Knee Replacement: A New Roughness Measurements Protocol on in vivo Condyles Considering the Dynamic Loading from Musculoskeletal Multibody Model,” Measurement, Vol. 112, pp. 22–28, 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jaber, S. A., Ruggiero, A., Battaglia, S., and Affatato, S., “On the Roughness Measurement on Knee Prostheses,” The International Journal of Artificial Organs, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 39–44, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Abdel-Jaber, S., Belvedere, C., Leardini, A., and Affatato, S., “Wear Simulation of Total Knee Prostheses Using Load and Kinematics Waveforms from Stair Climbing,” Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 48, No. 14, pp. 3830–3836, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Miller, D. L. and Goswami, T., “A Review of Locking Compression Plate Biomechanics and their Advantages as Internal Fixators in Fracture Healing,” Clinical Biomechanics, Vol. 22, No. 10, pp. 1049–1062, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Precision Engineering and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringYonsei UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.R&BD Center, Corentec Co., Ltd.SeoulRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSejong UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations