Abrasive Wear in Punching Pin with Cryogenic Treatment for GPa-Grade Steels

  • Chanhee Won
  • Hyung-gyu Kim
  • Youngnam Song
  • Giseok Chung
  • Seokryul Lee
  • Jonghun YoonEmail author
Regular Paper


The increasing application of GPa-grade steel to autobody panels has led to increasing problems related to abrasive wear in mold and tool surfaces, which dramatically degrades tool life and also degrades the surface finish of the final product. This paper mainly concerns the punching wear resistance imparted by cryogenic (CR) and quenching and tempering (QT) treatments, as well as the additional use of a TiN coating layer. This is investigated using pin-on-disk tests and punching experiments against DP980 sheets for up to 90,000 cycles. The wear coefficient of CR is about 10% greater than that of QT, which leads to a decelerated punching pin wear rate relative to QT starting at around the 70,000th cycle. To numerically predict abrasive wear, we newly propose that the wear coefficients of the substrate should be updated as a function of the clearance stage to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the wear analysis.


Cryogenic treatment Abrasive wear GPa-grade steel DP980 Archard model Punching pin 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Baluch, N., Udin, Z. M., and Abdullah, C. S., “Advanced High Strength Steel in Auto Industry: An Overview,” Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 686–689, 2014.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chen, X., Shi, M., Chen, G., Kamura, M., Watanabe, K., and Omiya, Y., “Crash Performances of Advanced High Strength Steels of DP780, TRIP780 and DP980,” SAE Technical Paper, No. 2005-01-0354, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Till, E., Berger, E., and Larour, P., “On an Exceptional Forming Behaviour Aspect of AHSS Sheets,” Proc. of IDDRG 2008 International Conference, 2008.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sadagopan, S., “Formability Characterization of Advanced High-Strength Steels,” Great Designs in Steel Seminar, 2004.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ingarao, G., Di Lorenzo, R., and Micari, F., “Analysis of Stamping Performances of Dual Phase Steels: A Multi-Objective Approach to Reduce Springback and Thinning Failure,” Materials & Design, Vol. 30, No. 10, pp. 4421–4433, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wu-Rong, W., Chang-Wei, H., Zhong-Hua, Z., and Xi-cheng, W., “The Limit Drawing Ratio and Formability Prediction of Advanced High Strength Dual-Phase Steels,” Materials & Design, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp. 3320–3327, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Choi, J., Lee, J., Bae, G., Barlat, F., and Lee, M.-G., “Evaluation of Springback for DP980 S Rail Using Anisotropic Hardening Models,” JOM, Vol. 68, No. 7, pp. 1850–1857, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Viale, D. and Bhatnagar, R., “Optimization of Stamping Tools to Process Very High Strength Steels; Comparison of Cold Work Tool Steels,” Autosteel,—guy-baron—optimization-ofstamping-tools-to-process-very-high-strength-steels.ashx (Accessed 11 JUN 2018)
  9. 9.
    Pereira, M. P., Yan, W., and Rolfe, B. F., “Contact Pressure Evolution and Its Relation to Wear in Sheet Metal Forming,” Wear, Vol. 265, Nos. 11–12, pp. 1687–1699, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Eriksen, M., “The Influence of Die Geometry on Tool Wear in Deep Drawing,” Wear, Vol. 207, Nos. 1–2, pp. 10–15, 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cheung, C., Lee, W., and Chiu, W., “An Investigation of Tool Wear in the Dam-Bar Cutting of Integrated Circuit Packages,” Wear, Vol. 237, No. 2, pp. 274–282, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Monteil, G., Gréban, F., and Roizard, X., “In Situ Punch Wear Measurement in a Blanking Tool, by Means of Thin Layer Activation,” Wear, Vol. 265, Nos. 5–6, pp. 626–633, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Choi, H.-S., Kim, B.-M., and Ko, D.-C., “Effect of Clearance and Inclined Angle on Sheared Edge and Tool Failure in Trimming of DP980 Sheet,” Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 28, No. 6, pp. 2319–2328, 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hall, J., Mulholland, T., Young, D., and McGuire, J., “Investigation of Stamping Tooling Durability for Dual Phase Steels,” SAE Technical Paper, No. 2011-01-1060, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ipharmachine, “Dies Problem and Solution,”, 2015. (Accessed 24 APR 2017)
  16. 16.
    Kim, H., Han, S., Yan, Q., and Altan, T., “Evaluation of Tool Materials, Coatings and Lubricants in Forming Galvanized Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS),” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 299–304, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yao, Z. C., “Die Wear Evaluation for Stamping Trip700 and DP980 B-Pillar,” SAE Technical Paper, No. 2011-01-0038, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gruber, M., Ressel, G., Ploberger, S., Marsoner, S., and Ebner, R., “Characterization of the Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on the Tempering Behavior of a Secondary Hardening High Co-Ni Steel,” Proc. of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 119, Paper No. 012018, 2016.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Leskovšek, V., Kalin, M., and Vižintin, J., “Influence of Deep-Cryogenic Treatment on Wear Resistance of Vacuum Heat-Treated HSS,” Vacuum, Vol. 80, No. 6, pp. 507–518, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Archard, J., “Contact and Rubbing of Flat Surfaces,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 24, No. 8, pp. 981–988, 1953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Painter, B., Shivpuri, R., and Altan, T., “Prediction of Die Wear during Hot-Extrusion of Engine Valves,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 59, Nos. 1–2, pp. 132–143, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Choi, C., Groseclose, A., and Altan, T., “Estimation of Plastic Deformation and Abrasive Wear in Warm Forging Dies,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 212, No. 8, pp. 1742–1752, 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Behrens, B.-A. and Schaefer, F., “Prediction of Wear in Hot Forging Tools by Means of Finite-Element-Analysis,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 167, Nos. 2–3, pp. 309–315, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ko, D.-C., Kim, D.-H., and Kim, B.-M., “Finite Element Analysis for the Wear of Ti-N Coated Punch in the Piercing Process,” Wear, Vol. 252, Nos. 11–12, pp. 859–869, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cheon, S. and Kim, N., “Prediction of Tool Wear in the Blanking Process Using Updated Geometry,” Wear, Vol. 352, pp. 160–170, 2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lee, I.-K., Joeng, M.-S., Lee, S.-K., Lee, S.-Y., Kim, D. H., et al., “Prediction of Punch Life in Notching Process for Automatic Transmission Retainer Considering Fatigue and Wear,” Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 29, No. 12, pp. 5387–5393, 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Krause, B. and Bell, T., “Increasing the Efficiency of Metal forming Tooling for Advanced High-Strength Steels,” Autosteel,—increasing-the-efficiency-of-metalforming-tooling-foradvanced-high-strength-steels.ashx (Accessed 11 JUN 2018)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Subramonian, S., Altan, T., Ciocirlan, B., and Campbell, C., “Optimum Selection of Variable Punch-Die Clearance to Improve Tool Life in Blanking Non-Symmetric Shapes,” International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 75, pp. 63–71, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    ASTM G99, “Standard Test Method for Wear Testing with a Pin-on-Disk Apparatus,” 2017.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lengiewicz, J. and Stupkiewicz, S., “Efficient Model of Evolution of Wear in Quasi-Steady-State Sliding Contacts,” Wear, Vol. 303, Nos. 1–2, pp. 611–621, 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society for Precision Engineering and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringHanyang UniversityGyeonggi-doRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Steel Solution Marketing DepartmentPOSCOIncheonRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations