Investigation on the Unlubricated Sliding Tribological Properties of Ti–20Zr–6.5Al–4V Alloy at Elevated Temperatures

  • H. ZhongEmail author
  • L. Q. Yang
  • Y. Yue
  • C. P. Zhang
  • F. X. Jin
  • M. Gu
  • M. Z. MaEmail author


In this study, unlubricated sliding friction and wear properties of a recently-developed TiZr-based alloy (Ti–20Zr–6.5Al–4V, TZ20 hereafter) were tested at elevated temperatures ranging from room temperature to 673 K. After the tribological tests, worn surface and cross-section of TZ20 alloy were analyzed to illustrate its wear behavior. The results showed that the wear rate was increased firstly with the ambient temperature, which then decreased when the temperature exceeded critical transition temperature (473 K). Also, the dominant wear mechanisms changed from adhesive wear at room temperature to abrasive wear at 473 K, and then to mild abrasive wear at highest ambient temperature of 673 K. The variations of wear behaviors could be attributed to tribo-oxide layer formed during sliding process. At ambient temperature of 673 K, the tribo-oxide layer formed on the surface was thicker and more compact, and showed more obvious protective role on tribological properties of TZ20 alloy.

Graphic Abstract


TZ20 alloy Elevated temperature Wear behavior Tribo-oxide layer 



This research got financial support from NSFC (Grant No. 51671166/51801054), Talent Fund Project from Hefei University (18-19RC50). We are also grateful to the tribological test from J.P. Wang from Rtec instruments.


  1. 1.
    H. Dong, Surface Engineering of Light Alloys (Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, 2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Banerjee, J.C. Williams, Perspectives on titanium science and technology. Acta Mater. 61, 844–879 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Sibum, Titanium and titanium alloys—from raw material to semi-finished products. Adv. Eng. Mater. 5, 393–398 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R.M. Schutz, H.B. Watkins, Recent developments in titanium alloy application in the energy industry. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 243(1–2), 305–315 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M.A. Khan, R.L. Williams, D.F. Williams, In-vitro corrosion and wear of titanium alloys in the biological environment. Biomaterials 17(22), 2117–2126 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    E.H. Kraft, Opportunities for low cost titanium in reduced fuel consumption, improved emissions, and enhanced durability heavy duty vehicles (Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Zhong, L.Y. Dai, Y. Yue, B. Zhang, Z.H. Feng, X.Y. Zhang, M.Z. Ma, T. Khosla, J. Xiao, R.P. Liu, Friction and wear behavior of annealed Ti–20Zr–6.5Al–4V alloy sliding against 440C steel in vacuum. Tribol. Int. 109, 571–577 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Jing, S.X. Liang, C.Y. Liu, M.Z. Ma, R.P. Liu, Aging effects on the microstructure and mechanical properties Ti–20Zr–6.5Al–4V alloy. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 559, 474–479 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Jing, S.X. Liang, C.Y. Liu, M.Z. Ma, R.P. Liu, Effect of the annealing temperature on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties if TiZrAlV alloy. Mater. Des. 52, 981–986 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Y.H. Yang, C.Q. Xia, Z.H. Feng, X.J. Jiang, B. Pan, X.Y. Zhang, M.Z. Ma, R.P. Liu, Corrosion and passivation of annealed Ti–20Zr–6.5Al–4V alloy. Corros. Sci. 101, 56–65 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    F. Shafiei, A.T. Alpas, Effect of sliding speed on friction and wear behavior of nanocrystalline nickel tested in an argon atmosphere. Wear 265, 429–438 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Y.Q. Liu, Z. Han, H.T. Cong, Effects of sliding velocity and normal load on the tribological behavior of a nanocrystalline Al based composite. Wear 268(7–8), 976–983 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Z.H. Zhang, G.J. Ji, Z.M. Shi, Tribological properties of ZrO2 nanofilms coated on stainless steel in a 5% NaCl solution, distilled water and a dry environment. Surf. Coat. Technol. 350, 128–135 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    H. Tan, S.Y. Zhu, S. Wang, Y. Yu, W.S. Li, J. Yang, W.M. Liu, High-temperature tribological behavior of Al–20Si–5Fe–2Ni/ZrB2 composites. Tribol. Trans. 61(6), 1107–1116 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Q. He, A.L. Li, W.H. Qu, Y. Zhang, T. Wang, L.H. Kong, Investigation on friction and wear properties of high-temperature bearing steel 9Cr18Mo. Mater. Res. 21, 3 (2008)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    X. Jiang, W. Liu, S.Y. Dong, B.S. Xu, High temperature tribological behaviors of brush plated Ni–W–Co/SiC composite coating. Surf. Coat. Technol. 194(1), 10–15 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    T.F.J. Quinn, J.L. Sullivan, D.M. Rowson, Origins and development of oxidation wear at low ambient temperature. Wear 94(2), 175–191 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S.C. Lim, M.F. Ashby, The effects of sliding conditions on the dry friction of metals. Acta Metallurg. 37(3), 767–772 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y.K. Qin, D.S. Xiong, J.L. Li, Q.T. Jin, Y. He, R.C. Zhang, Y.R. Zou, Adaptive-lubricating PEO/Ag/MoS2 multilayered coating for Ti6Al4V alloy at elevated temperature. Mater. Des. 107, 311–321 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Nasehi, H.M. Ghasemi, M. Abedini, Effects of aging treatments on the high-temperature wear behavior of 60Nitinol Alloy. Tribol. Trans. 59(2), 286–291 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S.G. Qu, F.Q. Lai, G.H. Wang, Z.M. Yuan, X.Q. Li, H. Guo, Friction and wear behavior of 30CrMnSiA steel at elevated temperatures. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 25, 1407–1415 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Stott, High-temperature sliding wear of metals. Tribol. Int. 35, 489–495 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    A.K. Keshri, L. Behl, D. Lahiri, G.S. Dulikravich, A. Agarwal, Dry sliding wear behavior of Hafnium-based bulk metallic glass at room and elevated temperatures. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 25(9), 3931–3937 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    F. Labib, H.M. Ghasemi, R. Mahmudi, Dry sliding behavior of Mg/SiCp composites at room and elevated temperatures. Wear 348–349, 69–79 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. Georgiadis, G.G. Fuentes, E. Almandoz, A. Medrano, J.F. Palacio, A. Miguel, Characterisation of cathodic arc evaporated CrTiAlN coatings: tribological response at room temperature and at 400 °C. Mater. Chem. Phys. 190, 194–201 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Molinari, G. Straffelini, B. Tesi, T. Bacci, Dry sliding wear mechanisms of Ti6Al4V alloy alloy. Wear 208, 105–112 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Y.S. Mao, L. Wang, K.M. Chen, S.Q. Wang, S.H. Cui, Tribo-layer and its role in dry sliding wear of Ti–6Al–4V alloy. Wear 297, 1032–1039 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Q.Y. Zhang, Y. Zhou, L. Wang, X.H. Cui, S.Q. Wang, Investigation on tribo-layers and their function of a titanium alloy during dry sliding. Tribol. Int. 94, 541–549 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Q.Y. Zhang, S.Q. Wang, Y. Zhou, K.M. Chen, L. Wang, X.H. Cui, Artificial oxide-containing tribo-layers and their effect on wear performance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Tribol. Int. 105, 334–344 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    D. Kumar, K.B. Deepak, S.M. Muzakkir, M.F. Wani, K.P. Lijesh, Enhancing tribological performance of Ti–6Al–4V by sliding process. Tribol. Mater. Surf. Interfaces 12(3), 137–143 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    D. Kumar, B. Lal, M.F. Wani, J.T. Philip, B. Kuriachen, Dry sliding wear behavior of Ti–6Al–4V pin against SS316L disc in vacuum condition at high temperature. Tribol. Mater. Surf. Interfaces 13(3), 182–189 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    T. Dixit, I. Singh, K.E. Prasad, Room and high temperature dry sliding wear behavior of boron modified as-cast Ti–6Al–4V alloys against hardened steel. Wear 420–421, 207–214 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    A.S. Namini, S.A.A. Dilawary, A. Motallebzadeh, M.S. Asl, Effect of TiB2 addition on the elevated temperature tribological behavior of spark plasma sintered Ti matrix composite. Compos. Part B. 172, 271–280 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    H. Zhong, L.Y. Dai, Y.J. Yang, Y. Yue, B.A. Wang, X.Y. Zhang, M.Z. Ma, R.P. Liu, Vacuum tribological properties of Ti–20Zr–6.5Al–4V alloy as influenced by sliding velocities. Metallurg. Mater. Trans. 48A(11), 5678–5687 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    L.Q. Yang, H. Zhong, G. Lv, Y. Yue, B.Y. Guo, M.Z. Ma, R.P. Liu, Dry sliding behavior of a TiZr-based alloy under air and vacuum conditions. J. Mater. Perform. 28(6), 3402–3412 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    ASTM G99-17: Standard test method for wear testing with pin-on-disk apparatusGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    ASTM G40-17: Standard terminology relating to wear and erosionGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    S.Q. Chen, Metallography of Titanium Alloys (National Defense Industry Press, Beijing, 1986)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    W.D. Zeng, K.X. Wang, Y.Q. Zhao, J.H. Zhou, X.Y. Wang, B. Xu, Y.G. Zhou, Quantification of microstructural features in (α + β) titanium alloys (In Chinese). Chin. J. Nonferrous Met. 20(Z1), s505–s509 (2010)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    F.H. Stott, The role of oxidation in the wear of alloys. Tribol. Int. 31(1–3), 61–71 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. Pauschitz, M. Roy, F. Franek, Mechanisms of sliding wear of metals and alloys at elevated temperatures. Tribol. Int. 41, 584–602 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    L. Wang, Q.Y. Zhang, X.X. Li, X.H. Cui, S.Q. Wang, Severe-to-mild wear transition of titanium alloys as a function of temperature. Tribol. Lett. 53, 511–520 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    G. Straffelini, A. Molinari, Dry sliding wear of Ti6Al4V alloy as influenced by the counterface and sliding conditions. Wear 236, 328–338 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    M. Godet, The third body approach: a mechanical view of wear. Wear 100, 437–452 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    G. Rasool, M.M. Stack, Tribo-oxidation maps for Ti against steel. Tribol. Int. 91, 258–266 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    H.B. Zhou, P.P. Yao, Y.L. Xiao, K.Y. Fan, Z.Y. Zhang, T.M. Gong, L. Zhao, M.W. Deng, C. Liu, P. Ling, Friction and wear maps of copper metal matrix composites with different iron volume content. Tribol. Int. 132, 199–210 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Institute of Metals and Materials 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringHefei UniversityHefeiChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and TechnologyYanshan UniversityQinhuangdaoChina
  3. 3.National United Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Bearing TribologyHenan University of Science and TechnologyLuoyangChina

Personalised recommendations