Evolving Systems

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 635–647 | Cite as

Multi-area interconnected power system load frequency control using ELQR based state feedback gain controller

  • Naresh KumariEmail author
  • Nitin Malik
  • A. N. Jha
Original Paper


This paper introduces the Load Frequency Control (LFC) of three area power system utilizing a new intelligent control technique. The proposed controller is the enhanced linear quadratic regulator (ELQR) which is the joined execution of both the Kalman filter (KF) and LQR based state feedback gain controller. Here, the three area power system contains the combination of reheat thermal generator, wind generator and hydro power system. The proposed controller KF is designed to assessment the required state variables at the expense of slight performance degradation. KF uses the state space matrices Q and R and the initial values for the calculation of gain values to assessment the real signal value. In light of the non-linear frequency variation of the three area system, the ELQR predicts the optimal state feedback gain parameters of the controller. This procedure guarantees the system frequency control under the load disturbance influence by minimizing the automatic control error (ACE) and the tie line power variation. The proposed methodology is executed in MATLAB/Simulink working stage and the outcomes are validated with the current techniques such as PSO, BFO, GA, FPA, LQR, LQR-KF and LQR-PSO techniques. The comparison results invariably proves the effectiveness of the proposed method and confirms its potential to solve the related problems.


Power system LFC LQR Kalman filter Feedback gain controller Three-area system 



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The NorthCap UniversityGurugramIndia
  2. 2.The NorthCap UniversityGurugramIndia
  3. 3.IIT DelhiDelhiIndia

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