The Role of Mindfulness in the Insomnia Severity of Female Chronic Hypnotic Users
To investigate dispositional mindfulness, psychiatric symptoms, and their relationship with insomnia severity among female chronic hypnotic users.
Observational, cross-sectional study, including 76 women with chronic hypnotic use. Participants completed several self-report questionnaires: sociodemographic characteristics, depressive symptoms (CES-D), anxiety levels (STAI-T), dispositional mindfulness (FFMQ), and insomnia severity (ISI). Exploratory linear regression models were used to identify factors related to insomnia severity.
Multiple linear regression models showed that, for the total sample (N = 76), age (B = − 0.14, p = 0.003), depressive symptoms (B = 0.16, p = 0.005), and the mindfulness facets “observe” (B = 0.21. p = 0.013) and “act with awareness—auto pilot” (B = − 0.48, p = 0.017) were correlated to insomnia severity.
Results confirm a relationship between mindfulness and insomnia among female chronic hypnotic users, specifically regarding the ability to observe and act with awareness. A higher score on the “observe” facet was positively correlated with insomnia. This may be because the skill of observing itself, isolated from other mindfulness precepts, does not provide sufficient strategies to cope with the observed discomfort. Increased “acting with awareness—autopilot” was negatively correlated with insomnia severity, arguably because it stimulates breaking automatic patterns of thoughts and behaviors that contribute to the perpetuation of the insomnia cycle.
KeywordsMindfulness Insomnia Hypnotics Cross-sectional
We express appreciation to Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico for the financial support; Associação Fundo de Incentivo à Pesquisa for the infrastructure, statistical consulting by Unifesp, Izabela Bichir for grammar review, and all colleagues from Nepsis for their valuable contributions.
This work was supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico under grant 407116/2013-3.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee (CEP number 0123/2016) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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